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99 terms

NB microbiology

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allergy (hypersensitivity)
an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction
antagonism
mutual opposition or contrary action. The inhibition of one bacterial organism by another.
antibody
glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen. also known as immunoglobulin
antigen
a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it
antisepsis
the prevention of sepsis by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganism
attenuation
dilution of weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing, or abolishing pathogenicity
autotrophic bacteria
self-nourishing bacteria that are capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide.
Bacillus (pl. Bacilli)
any rod shaped microorganism
bacteremia
the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream
bacteria
microscopic unicellular organisms having no nuclear membrane, devoid of chlorophyll, which reproduce by binary fission
bacterial colony
a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism
bactericide
an agent that destroys bacteria buy not necessarily their spores.
binary fission
a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.
biological vector
an arthropod vector in which the disease-causing organism multiplies or develops withing the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual
Bleaches (hypochlorites)
hypochlorites
capsule
the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis
chlamydia
a large group of nonmotile, gram-negative intracellular parasites
Coccus (pl. cocci)
a type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form
commensalism
the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains benefit such as protection or nourishment
communicable
a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another
contamination
the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance
diplobacilli
a double bacillus, two being linked end to end to each other
diplococcus
a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive organisms occurring in pairs. Also called streptococcus
drug-fast
resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of drug or drugs
disinfectant
a chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms - generally used on inanimate objects
disinfection
the destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object
endemic
disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has low mortality.
endogenous infection
produced or arising from within a cell or organism
endospores
a thick-walled spore within a bacterium
endotoxin
bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram-negative bacteria
facultative aerobe
a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live an grow in the presence of oxygen
facultative anaerobe
an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence
facultative saprophyte
prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions
Epidemic
appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area
exogenous infection
orginating outside an organ or part
exotoxin
a toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium, generally protein in nature
facultative bacteria
having the cpacity to do something athat is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or adapt to certain conditions
focal infection
one in which the organism are originally confine to one area but enter teh blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body
fomite
any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted
fungus (pl. fungi)
a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicelluar organisms, lacking chlorophyll usually bearing spores and often filamentous
fungicide
an agent that kills fungi and their spores
general infection
an infection that becomes systemic
germicide
a substance that destroy microorganisms
heterotrophic bacteria
organisms that require complex organic food from a carbon source in order to grow and develop
hypersensitivity (allergy)
an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction
indigenous flora
plant life occurring or adapted for living in specific environment
infection
the state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects
insecticide
a substance that kills insects
iodophores
a compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant
larvacide
a substance that kills insect larva
local infection
infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there
maximum temperature
temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place
mechanical vector
a living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying a disease agent on it external body parts or surface
mesophile
bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperatures between 25 C and 40 C
microaerophilic
a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen
microbiology
scientific study of microorganism and their effect on other living organisms
minimum temperature
temperature below which bacterial groth wil not take place
mixed infection
infection caused by two or more organism
mutualism
a relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association, to the mutual benefit of each
mycology
a branch of science concerned with the study of fungi
mycoplasmas
bacteria of the mycoplasma genus that are found in humans, most having no cell wall; the smallest free living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria
non-symbiotic
organisms that are free living and relationship are not required for survival
opportunist
an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions
pandemic
a disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time to may different parts of the world
parasitism
an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits
pathogenicity
the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease
primary infection
an original infection from which a second on originates
prion
small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Prion disease are often called spongiform encepholopathies
protozoa
unicellular organisms which are the lowest forms of animal life
protozoology
science that deals with the study of protozoa
psychrophile
bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 c and 25 c
Rickettsia
a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracelluar parasitic bacteria
rickettsiology
area of science that studies rickettsia
sarcinae
a cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria (sarcina in latin for bundle)
secondary infection
infection caused by a different organism that the one causing the primary infection
septicemia
condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood
Spirillum (pl. Spirilla)
a genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement
spirochete
a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. movement i these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell
sporadic
a disease which occurs occasionally or in scattered instances
staphylococcus
genus of gram-positive nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular grape-like clusters
sterilization
process of completely removing or destroying all life forms or their products on or in a substance
streptobacilli
a genus of bacteria containing gram-negative rods that form a chain like colony
streptococci
gram positive cocci that occur in chains
strict (obligate) aerobe
a microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen
strict (obligate) anaerobe
a microbe taht only survive in an area without oxygen present
strict (obligate) parasite
an organism that is completely dependent on it living host for survival
strict (obligate) saprophyte
an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter
symbiosis
the living together in close association of two organisms of different species
synergism
the harmonious action of two microorganism producing an effect that neither could produce alone
tetracocci
a grouping of four spherical shpaed cells
thermophile
bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures between 40 c and 70 c
toxemia
blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous product of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thous producing generalized symptoms
toxin
a poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or fungal origin
true pathogen
real or genuine disease-producing organism
vibrio
a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas
virucide
an agent destructive to viruses
virology
a study of viruses and viral diseases
virulence
relative power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease
virus
an intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.