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allergy (hypersensitivity)

an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance (allergen) that does not normally cause a reaction


mutual opposition or contrary action. The inhibition of one bacterial organism by another.


glycoprotein substance developed in response to, and interacting specifically with an antigen. also known as immunoglobulin


a foreign substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies that interact specifically with it


the prevention of sepsis by preventing or inhibiting the growth of causative microorganism


dilution of weakening of virulence of a microorganism, reducing, or abolishing pathogenicity

autotrophic bacteria

self-nourishing bacteria that are capable of growing in the absence of organic compounds. Organisms that obtain carbon from carbon dioxide.

Bacillus (pl. Bacilli)

any rod shaped microorganism


the presence of viable bacteria in the blood stream


microscopic unicellular organisms having no nuclear membrane, devoid of chlorophyll, which reproduce by binary fission

bacterial colony

a visible group of bacteria growing on a solid medium, presumably arising from a single microorganism


an agent that destroys bacteria buy not necessarily their spores.

binary fission

a method of asexual reproduction in bacteria in which the cell splits into two parts, each of which develops into a complete individual.

biological vector

an arthropod vector in which the disease-causing organism multiplies or develops withing the arthropod prior to becoming infective for a susceptible individual

Bleaches (hypochlorites)



the membrane that surrounds some bacterial cells; a loose gel-like structure that, in pathogenic bacteria, helps to protect against phagocytosis


a large group of nonmotile, gram-negative intracellular parasites

Coccus (pl. cocci)

a type of bacteria that is spherical or ovoid in form


the symbiotic relationship of two organisms of different species in which one gains benefit such as protection or nourishment


a disease that may be transmitted directly or indirectly from one individual to another


the act of introducing disease germs or infectious material into an area or substance


a double bacillus, two being linked end to end to each other


a genus of bacteria that are gram-positive organisms occurring in pairs. Also called streptococcus


resistant, as in bacteria, to the action of drug or drugs


a chemical or physical agent that kills disease-causing microorganisms - generally used on inanimate objects


the destruction of infectious agents by chemical or physical means directly applied to an inanimate object


disease that occurs continuously in a particular region but has low mortality.

endogenous infection

produced or arising from within a cell or organism


a thick-walled spore within a bacterium


bacterial toxin confined within the body of a bacterium freed only when the bacterium is broken down, found only in gram-negative bacteria

facultative aerobe

a microorganism that prefers an environment devoid of oxygen but has adapted so that it can live an grow in the presence of oxygen

facultative anaerobe

an organism that prefers an oxygen environment but is capable of living and growing in its absence

facultative saprophyte

prefers live organic matter as a source of nutrition but can adapt to the use of dead organic matter under certain conditions


appearance of an infectious disease or condition that attacks many people at the same time in the same geographical area

exogenous infection

orginating outside an organ or part


a toxin produced by a microorganism and excreted into its surrounding medium, generally protein in nature

facultative bacteria

having the cpacity to do something athat is not compulsory, in particular having the ability to live or adapt to certain conditions

focal infection

one in which the organism are originally confine to one area but enter teh blood or lymph vessel and spread to other parts of the body


any inanimate object to which infectious material adheres and can be transmitted

fungus (pl. fungi)

a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicelluar organisms, lacking chlorophyll usually bearing spores and often filamentous


an agent that kills fungi and their spores

general infection

an infection that becomes systemic


a substance that destroy microorganisms

heterotrophic bacteria

organisms that require complex organic food from a carbon source in order to grow and develop

hypersensitivity (allergy)

an acquired, abnormal immune response to a substance that does not normally cause a reaction

indigenous flora

plant life occurring or adapted for living in specific environment


the state or condition in which the body or a part of it is invaded by a pathogenic agent that, under favorable conditions, multiplies and produces injurious effects


a substance that kills insects


a compound consisting of iodine combined with a carrier, such as polyvinylpyrrolidone, often used as a preoperative skin disinfectant


a substance that kills insect larva

local infection

infection caused by germs lodging and multiplying at one point in a tissue and remaining there

maximum temperature

temperature above which bacterial growth will not take place

mechanical vector

a living organism or an object that is capable of transmitting infections by carrying a disease agent on it external body parts or surface


bacteria that prefers moderate temperature and develops best at temperatures between 25 C and 40 C


a microorganism that requires very little free oxygen


scientific study of microorganism and their effect on other living organisms

minimum temperature

temperature below which bacterial groth wil not take place

mixed infection

infection caused by two or more organism


a relationship in which organisms of two different species live in close association, to the mutual benefit of each


a branch of science concerned with the study of fungi


bacteria of the mycoplasma genus that are found in humans, most having no cell wall; the smallest free living organisms presently known, being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria


organisms that are free living and relationship are not required for survival


an organism that exist as part of the normal flora but may become pathogenic under certain conditions


a disease affecting the majority of the population of a large region or one that is epidemic at the same time to may different parts of the world


an interactive relationship between two organisms in which one is harmed and the other benefits


the state of producing or being able to produce pathological changes and disease

primary infection

an original infection from which a second on originates


small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and therefore resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids. Prion disease are often called spongiform encepholopathies


unicellular organisms which are the lowest forms of animal life


science that deals with the study of protozoa


bacteria that prefer cold, thriving at temperatures between 0 c and 25 c


a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracelluar parasitic bacteria


area of science that studies rickettsia


a cube-like packet of eight spherical bacteria (sarcina in latin for bundle)

secondary infection

infection caused by a different organism that the one causing the primary infection


condition characterized by the multiplication of bacteria in blood

Spirillum (pl. Spirilla)

a genus of spiral bacteria having a corkscrew shape with a rigid cell wall and hair-like projections called flagella that assist in movement


a genus of bacteria having a flexible cell wall but no flagella in the traditional sense. movement i these organisms occurs by contractions (undulating) of long filaments (endoflagella) that run the length of the cell


a disease which occurs occasionally or in scattered instances


genus of gram-positive nonmotile, opportunistic bacteria which tend to aggregate in irregular grape-like clusters


process of completely removing or destroying all life forms or their products on or in a substance


a genus of bacteria containing gram-negative rods that form a chain like colony


gram positive cocci that occur in chains

strict (obligate) aerobe

a microbe that can only live in the presence of oxygen

strict (obligate) anaerobe

a microbe taht only survive in an area without oxygen present

strict (obligate) parasite

an organism that is completely dependent on it living host for survival

strict (obligate) saprophyte

an organism that can only survive on dead or decaying organic matter


the living together in close association of two organisms of different species


the harmonious action of two microorganism producing an effect that neither could produce alone


a grouping of four spherical shpaed cells


bacteria that thrive best at high temperatures between 40 c and 70 c


blood distribution throughout the body of poisonous product of bacteria growing in a focal or local site, thous producing generalized symptoms


a poisonous substance of plant, animal, bacterial, or fungal origin

true pathogen

real or genuine disease-producing organism


a genus of spiral bacteria which are curved or bent rods that resemble commas


an agent destructive to viruses


a study of viruses and viral diseases


relative power and degree of pathogenicity possessed by organisms to produce disease


an intracellular, infectious parasite, capable of living and reproducing only in living cells.

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