Study Guide - First Settlements and Regions of Colonies

Name the first four settlements and their approximate dates of settlement.
Roanoke - 1587
Jamestown - 1607
Plymouth - 1620
Massachusetts - 1630
Describe how each of the first four settlements was founded.
Roanoke - single proprietor -
Sir Walter Raleigh

Jamestown - joint stock company -
Virginia Company - about 20 wealthy investors

Plymouth -no funding - not intentionally settled

Massachusetts - joint stock company - Massachusetts Bay Company - 100s of Puritan investors
What were the goals of the Roanoke settlement?
Harass Spanish ships
Mine for silver and gold
Discover a passage to the Pacific
Convert Natives to Christianity
What were the goals of the Jamestown settlement?
Establish the first permanent English settlement
Make a profit for the Virginia Company
What were the goals of the Separatists/Pilgrims who settled Plymouth?
Start a separate settlement in Northern Virginia for Separatists
What were the goals of the Puritans who started the Massachusetts Bay Colony?
Establish a model Christian community - a "City on a Hill"
To inspire Church of England to change
To create a profitable and pious community
Describe the success of the Roanoke settlement.
First settlement - abandoned after one summer
Second settlement - disappeared when help and supplies from England were delayed by war
Describe the success of the Jamestown settlement.
For the first four years - 80% death rate
caused by
disease, and
conflict with Natives

Began to make a profit due to development of tobacco as a cash crop
Describe the success of the Plymouth settlement.
Over 50% died the first year

Unprepared for survival in wilderness

Planned to settle in the Virginia colony
Blown off course by storms due to late departure caused by poor funding and poor equipment
Describe the success of the Massachusetts Bay Company.
Very successful from the start

Very well funded by hundreds of Puritans in joint stock company

Had plans for profitable businesses in
Prepared for subsistence farming

Population boomed
Came in families

Had well developed plan for government based on a town system
Who was Sir Walter Raleigh?
Proprietor who funded Roanoke settlement
Who was John White?
Artist who later became governor of Roanoke
Who was Thomas Harriot?
helped explore Chesapeake Bay area

wrote a book describing the area that became Virginia
Who was John Smith?
Leader sent to organize the settlers at Jamestown

Prevented failure of colony
Who was John Rolfe?
Settler in Jamestown who developed tobacco into a cash crop, making Jamestown profitable

Married Pocahontas, the daughter of the leader of the local Natives
Who was John Winthrop?
The Puritan minister
wrote the sermon "A Model of Christian Charity"
Also known as the "City on a Hill" sermon
Became governor of Massachusetts
Who was Roger Williams?
Banished from Massachusetts due to disputes over
Treatment of Native Americans
Treatment of women
Founded Rhode Island based on
Equality of all races and both sexes
Freedom of religion
Who was William Penn?
Founded Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers

Sought a diverse colony
Printed pamphlets in many languages
Distributed pamphlets throughout Europe
Believed people of different nations and religions would learn to see each other as brothers by living side by side

Philadelphia - City of Brotherly Love
How did New York begin?
Dutch colony
Very diverse
Had attracted settlers from throughout
Europe with promises of free land

Settlers surrendered to English, rejecting harsh Dutch leadership
How did Delaware begin?
A Swedish colony
Allowed to break off from Pennsylvania
What were the four regions of the British colonies?
New England
Middle colonies
Southern Colonies
The Backcountry
What 4 colonies made up the region of New England?
Be able to label them on a blank map.
Rhode Island
New Hampshire
What 4 colonies made up the region of the Middle Colonies?
Be able to label them on a blank map.
New York
New Jersey
What 5 colonies made up the region of the Southern colonies?
Be able to label them on a blank map
Virginia North Carolina
South Carolina
Describe the Backcountry?
Be able to label it on a blank map.
The Backcountry - Appalachian Mountain region

No for-profit economic activity

Subsistence farming
Settlers also had to hunt and gather

Settlers did not own land they farmed

Many settlers were Scots-Irish
What were the only two cities in the 13 colonies?
New York
Compare the key aspects of geography of the three regions of the colonies
New England
Hills and low mountains with narrow coastal plain
Thin rocky soil
Long winter, short growing season
Many natural harbors

Middle Colonies
Fertile soil
Longer growing season

Southern Colonies
Fertile soil
Year-round growing season
Tidewater area - large coastal plain with swampy area
Piedmont - rolling foothills as near Appalachians
Describe the people who settled in New England.
Mostly English
Middle class
Densely populated
Describe the population of the Middle Colonies.
Very diverse
Especially in the two cities
Describe the social structure of the Southern colonies.
White people divided
Small group - wealthy slave holders that
owner plantations, Upper
Much larger group - poor with little or no
land, Lower class

No Middle Class

Slaves - about ⅓ of population
Describe where people lived in each region.
New England
Towns centered around a single church

Middle colonies
Commercial farms near villages

Southern colonies
On plantations
On small subsistence farms
No towns
No cities
Possible Essay Question Topic
Describe farming in each of the three regions of the colonies.
New England
Difficult -
thin and rocky soil
long, snowy winter - short growing season
Subsistence - produced enough to support their families, but did not have extra to sell

Middle colonies
Commercial farming -
Main crop - wheat
Sold to New England and Europe
Known as "The Breadbasket

Southern Colonies
Plantation - Large, commercial farms
Crops - Tobacco, Rice, Indigo,
later Cotton
Crops require many workers
Small, subsistence farms on poor land
Possible Essay Question Topic
Describe the economic activity in each of the three regions of the colonies.
New England
Merchants - International trade on Atlantic trade routes

Middle colonies
Commercial farming -
Main crop - wheat
Sold to New England and Europe
Known as "The Breadbasket"
Flour shipped instead of raw wheat - ground in mills

Southern Colonies
Plantation farming - Large, commercial farms
Tobacco, Rice, Indigo,
later Cotton
Crops require many workers - used slave labor for profit