Science Olympiad-Immune System

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Terms in this set (47)
Sinusoidal lining cellMacrophage in the spleenCytokinesProteins that are secreted by cells in response to a stimulusB lymphocytesWhen in contact with antigens, develop into plasma cells, which secrete antibodiesAntibodies/immunoglobulinsProteins present in plasma and interstitial fluid that target specific antigens for destructionT lymphocytesDo direct damage to foreign cells. When in contact with abnormal cells turn into cytotoxic T cells that destroy the cells.Mast cellsFound in skin, etc, secrete histamine and other substancesDendritic cellsSimilar to macrophages, activate certain T cells. 4 types of dendritic cells are: langerhans cells, interstitial dendritic cells, myeloid cells, and lymphoid dendritic cells.Central lymphoid tissuesBone marrow and thymusPeripheral lymphoid tissuesSpleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, appendix, peyer's patchesInterferonsProteins released by a virus-infected cell to warn other cells a the presence of a virusNatural killer cellsRecognize abnormal cells and release perforinsPerforinsProteins that form pores in an infected cell's membrane, causing it to swell with fluid and lyseComplement system30 plasma proteins that destroy invading microorganismsNonspecific defensesPhysical barriers Inflammation Interferons Complement systemInflammationComplex series of events causing accumulation of proteins, fluid, and Phagocytic cells in an area of tissue that has been injured or invadedCell-mediated immunityThe process by which cytotoxic T cells bind to and kill abnormal cellsIgMMost common class of antibody produced in the primary response to antigen. Neutralizes, agglutinates, activates complementIgDImportant as an antigen receptor on B cells. Neutralizes, agglutinatesIgGMost common class of antibody in blood, major class produced in secondary response. Neutralizes, agglutinates, opsonizes; activates complement, enhances NK cell activityIgEInvolved in allergies. Binds to mast cells and basophils, making them release histamine, neutralizes, agglutinatesIgACrosses epithelial cells so is present on mucosal surfaces. Neutralizes, agglutinatesNeutralizationWhen antibodies block an antigen's activity by binding to itAgglutinationWhen antigens are neutralized and clumped together by antibodiesOpsonizationWhen antibodies bind to antigens so as to promote phagocytosisHelper T cellsHelp regulate the immune response by secreting cytokines that enhance the activity of B cells and all types of T cellsCytotoxic T cellsKill cells infected by viruses or abnormal cellsSuppressor T cellsThought to produce cytokines that suppress the activity of B cells and T cellsTCRsAntigen receptors on T cellsMajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) moleculesSpecial class of self proteins that binds to foreign antigens so it can be detected by T cellsHuman leukocyte antigens (HLA) moleculesMHC molecules in humansClass I MHCsFound on the surfaces of almost all cells of the bodyClass II MHCsFound only on specialized cell types like macrophages, dendritic cells, etcInterleukin-2Cytokines released by helper T cells to stimulate T and B cell proliferation and enhance NK activityInterleukin-4Cytokines released by helper T cells that stimulates B, T, and mast cell proliferation, induces release of IgG and IgE, increases numbers of class II MHC molecules, and enhances phagocytosisInterleukin-5Cytokines released by helper T cells that stimulate B cell and hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and induces secretion of IgAInterleukin-10Cytokines released by helper T cells that helps down-regulate the immune response by inhibiting cytokine production in macrophagesFunctions of the specific immune responseSpecificity Diversity Memory Self-Tolerance