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GCH 205 Exam 2 Study Guide
Terms in this set (57)
What are the differences between public health and medicine?
In medicine, the patient is the individual; in public health, the patient is the community
- Public health diagnoses the health of the community using public health sciences
Treatment of the community involves new policies and interventions
Goal of medicine is cure; goal of public health is prevention
What are the direct causes of undernutrition?
Inadequate dietary intake and disease
What is stunting?
Low height for age: caused by long-term insufficient nutrient intake and frequent infections. Stunting generally occurs before age two, and effects are largely irreversible. These include delayed motor development, impaired cognitive function and poor school performance. Nearly one third of children under five in the developing world are stunted.
What is wasting?
low weight for height: a strong predictor of mortality among children under five. It is usually the result of acute significant food shortage and/or disease. There are 24 developing countries with wasting rates of 10 per cent or more, indicating a serious problem urgently requiring a response.
What are some of the key nutritional deficiencies?
- Iron deficiency
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Vitamin A deficiency
- Zinc deficiency
- Iodine deficiency
Causes anemia/risk of maternal and perinatal mortality and low birth weight. Maternal and neonatal deaths are a major cause of mortality
Vitamin D deficiency
Causes rickets/found in fish oils and dairy
Vitamin A deficiency
Causes xerophthalmia, which affects the eyes. Caused by inadequate dietary intake/necessary to support healthy eyesight and immune system functions/increased risk of blindness and death from infections such as measles and diarrhea
Promotes immunity, resistance to infection, and proper growth and development of the nervous system3, and is integral to healthy pregnancy outcomes/decreases childhood diarrhea and respiratory infections, lowers all-cause mortality, and increases growth and weight gain among infants and young children
Causes a range of abnormalities including goitre (swelling of the thyroid gland in the neck) and cretinism (stunted physical and mental growth), which occurs in the offspring of women with severe deficiency
What are the key recommendations for breastfeeding & complementary foods?
Early initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth;
exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life; and
the introduction of nutritionally-adequate and safe complementary (solid) foods at 6 months together with continued breastfeeding up to 2 years of age or beyond
What kind of health issues are related to indoor pollution & outdoor pollution, such as respiratory irritation and illnesses?
Conjunctivitis, upper respiratory infection, acute respiratory infection, carbon monoxide poisoning, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, breathing impairment, eye irritation
Examples of waterborne diseases
Diarrhea, Arsenicosis, Cholera, Fluorosis, Guinea worm disease, Intestinal worms, Malaria, Schistosomiasis, Trachoma, and Typhoid
Caused by a variety of micro-organisms including viruses, bacteria and protozoans. Diarrhoea causes a person to lose both water and electrolytes,, which leads to dehydration and, in some cases, to death.
Long-term exposure to low concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water causes painful skin keratosis (hardened lesions) and can result in cancers of the skin, lungs, bladder and kidney. Millions of people are potentially in danger from arsenic poisoning since they rely on water supplies that are contaminated with arsenic (mainly from natural sources) and do not have a safe water alternative or are unaware of the risks.
An acute bacterial infection of the intestinal tract. It causes severe attacks of diarrhoea that, without treatment, can quickly lead to acute dehydration and death. Cholera is a world-wide problem, especially in emergency situations. It can be prevented by access to safe drinking water, sanitation and good hygiene behaviour (including food hygiene). In 2002, over 120,000 cholera cases were reported worldwide.
A serious bone disease caused by high concentrations of fluoride occurring naturally in groundwater. Fluorosis is endemic in at least 25 countries across the globe. The total number of people affected is not known, but a conservative estimate would number in the tens of millions.
Guinea worm disease
People contract the disease (also known as Dracunculiasis) when drinking water contaminated with Dracunculus larvae. The larvae mature into large (up to a metre long) adult Guinea worms and leave the body after about a year, causing debilitating ulcers.
People become infected with intestinal parasitic worms (also know as helminths) through contact with soil that has been contaminated with human faeces from an infected person, or by eating contaminated food. Can lead to malnutrition, anaemia or retarded growth. Children are particularly susceptible and typically have the largest number of worms.
A serious disease caused by a parasite carried by certain types of mosquitoes. Humans are infected when bitten by the mosquitoes. Each year, there are 300 million to 500 million cases of malaria throughout the world and about 1 million child deaths. Standing water major contributor.
A disease caused by parasitic worms. At various stages of the life cycle, worms and their eggs live in certain types of freshwater snails, water (where they can survive for 48 hours) and human hosts. They penetrate the skin of people swimming, bathing or washing in contaminated water, They then cause infection and can eventually damage the liver, intestines, lungs and bladder.
Trachoma is an eye infection spread mainly through poor hygiene caused by lack of adequate water supplies and unsafe environmental sanitation conditions. About 6 million people are blind today because of trachoma.
Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection caused by ingesting contaminated food or water. Symptoms are characterized by headaches, nausea and loss of appetite. About 12 million people are affected by typhoid every year.
Causes and impact of diarrhea on infants and children
- Second-leading infectious cause of young child death
- Causes dehydration, loss of nutrition or wasting, and damage to the intestines
- Children under-5 in low- and middle-income countries have around 3-4 cases of diarrhea per year, with infants 6 -11 months of age having almost twice as many cases
Water Supply: low cost/high health gain solutions
- House connection
- Dug well
- Rainwater collection
Sanitation: low cost/high health gain solutions
- Simple pit latrine
- Small bore sewer
- Ventilation-improved latrine
- Septic tank
- Sewer connection
Hygiene: low cost/high health gain solutions
Hand-washing and cleanliness promotion
Region of world with the worst nutritional problems
East and Southeast Asia
Region of world with highest underweight children
Region of world with highest rates of maternal mortality
Region of world with highest rates of unsafe abortion
The highest unsafe abortion rate is in the Latin America and the Caribbean region and it is only marginally lower in the Africa region.
Region of world with highest risk of neonatal death
Region of world with highest mortality rates from HIV/AIDS
Five leading causes of death in children under 5
1. Pneumonia, or other acute respiratory infections
2. Childhood diarrhea
Leading causes of morbidity (DALYS) in adolescents
- Unipolar depressive disorder
- Road injury
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Anxiety disorders
leading causes of mortality in adolescents
- Road injury
- Interpersonal violence
- Maternal conditions
Key risk factors for mortality and morbidity for adolescents
- Alcohol use
- Unsafe sex
- Lack of contraception
- Iron deficiency
- Illicit drug use
- Unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene
Direct causes of maternal mortality
- Hemorrhage (uncontrolled bleeding)
- Sepsis (infection)
- Hypertensive Disorders
- Prolonged or Obstructed Labor
- Unsafe Abortion
Indirect causes of maternal mortality
- Accounts for approximately 20% of maternal deaths.
- Pre-existing medical conditions such as anemia, malaria, hepatitis, heart disease, and HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of maternal death
Life-threatening medical conditions that occur in pregnancy or during or after labor and delivery.
- Condition in which a hole opens up between bladder and vagina or rectum and vagina
- 50,000 to 100,000 women each year will suffer a fistula
- Women with fistulas are often stigmatized or abandoned
- Risk factors are those associated with an obstructed delivery
A disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure and a large amount of protein in the urine. The disorder usually occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and gets worse over time. In severe disease there may be red blood cell breakdown, a low blood platelet count, impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, swelling, shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs, or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia increases the risk of poor outcomes for both the mother and the baby. If left untreated, it may result in seizures at which point it is known as eclampsia.
- Onset of seizures (convulsions) in a woman with pre-eclampsia.
- Complications include: aspiration pneumonia, cerebral hemorrhage, kidney failure, and cardiac arrest. Preeclampsia and eclampsia are part of a larger group of conditions known as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy
How does partner violence affect women's health?
Can lead to injuries, unwanted pregnancy, STIs, depression, disability, and death
What are the benefits of family planning?
- Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women
- Reducing infant mortality
- Prevent HIV/AIDS
- Empowering people and enhancing education
- Reducing adolescent pregnancies
- Slowing population growth
What is the neonatal period? What is its significance in child mortality?
- Neonatal: referring to the first month of life
- Significance: 44% of under-5 child deaths occur among neonates
Which infectious disease has been eradicated?
Infectious diseases for which there are vaccines and which have the greatest impact on under 5 child mortality
What might be in a birth kit given to trained attendants?
A plastic sheet, soap, 2 gloves, sterile scalpel blade, 3 cords and 5 gauze squares.
Framework encouraged by Rockefeller Foundation
Seek to combine the strengths of public and private organizations in a common quest for better health
Conceived of as "venture capital firms" that would have a social goal rather than a goal that was mostly aimed at maximizing profit
Significant Public-Private partnerships
- Global Alliance for TB Drug Development
- Human Hookworm Vaccine Institute
- International AIDS Vaccine Initiative
- International Partnership for Microbicides
- Malaria Vaccine Initiative
- Medicines for Malaria Venture
(Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee)
- Largest NGO involved in international development and reaches 135 million people
- Works in areas of human rights and social empowerment, education and health, economic empowerment and enterprise development, livelihood training, environmental sustainability and disaster preparedness
- Women and children take priority
- Well-known for reducing child and infant mortality, spreading oral rehydration therapy, and effectiveness of community-based approaches
- In Bangladesh, its community-based approach to primary health care, is called "Essential Health Care (EHC)."
- Trained community healthcare workers are known as shasthya shebika
Doctors Without Borders (MSF)
- Umbrella organization made up of affiliated groups in 19 countries
- Best known for provision of health services following humanitarian crises but also involved with nutrition, disease control efforts and also efforts to increase access to essential medicines
- Commitment to political independence, medical ethics, and human rights
(U.S. Agency for International Development)
U.S. Government agency that works to end extreme global poverty and enable resilient, democratic societies to realize their potential.
Key UN Agencies
- World Health Organization
- UNICEF: United Nations Children's Fund
- UNFPA: United Nations Population Fund
- UNDP: United Nations Development Program
- UNAIDS: Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS
WHO's definition of a health system
All the activities whose primary purpose is to promote, restore and/or maintain health. The people, institutions and resources, arranged together in accordance with established policies, to improve the health of the population they serve, while responding to people's legitimate expectations and protecting them against the cost of ill-health through a variety of activities whose primary intent is to improve health.
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