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Chapter 1 COMD 2500 Spring 2014
Terms in this set (64)
Theory of cognitive science that considers how the human mind is organized within the structures of the brain
What is language?
1.basic and essential human behavior that develops early in life. 2.involved words and sentences. 3.expression (production of language) and comprehension (understanding of language). 4.process of the brain that helps us communicate our thoughts to others
Definition of language
"System of conventional spoken or written symbols used by people in a shared culture to communicate with one another"
A system of symbols shared by members of a community or culture. A tool for humans to communicate.
Smallest units of language that carry meaning;combined to create words.
characteristic of language code
Relationship between a word and it's referential (what the word is referring to) is arbitrary.
Characteristic of language cont'd
A common language is shared by community or culture. Some emerge from geographical or sociological or economic reasons.
Characteristics of language cont'd
Language is conventional. Specific, systematic, and rule-governed conventions that remove randomness from language. Rules govern the way a particular linguistic community arranges sound into words and words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Language characteristics cont'd
Language is a tool for human communication. Comm. is the process of sharing info. Other species comm. but humans use languages to comm. which makes us unique.
A specialized problem solving device in the brain that responds to information of restricted type. Regions of the brain developed to process specific types of info.
Modules in the brain that can only process very specific types of info such as depth perception in the visual system.
Language as a module of human cognition
Unlikely that there is just one language module
Language as it relates to speech, hearing, and communication
Language: orally communicated thru speech. Manually communicated thru sign. Written language. Inner language (thoughts and ideas kept to yourself)
Neuromuscular process by which we turn language into a sound signal that is transmitted thru the air to the receiver.
Sensory system that allows speech to enter into and be processed by the human brain
The process of sharing info among individuals
Speech activation requirements
4 systems: respiration, phonation, resonation, articulation
Model of speech production
3 stages:perceptual target, motor schema, speech output/ongoing feedback
Requires sender and receiver. It is essential for reception and comprehension
Transmission and reception of sound
4 acoustic events: creation of sound source, vibration of air particles, reception by ear, comprehension by brain
Specialized processors in the brain evolved specifically to respond to human speech and language
4 basic processes: formulation, transmission, reception, comprehension
Symbolic or referential communication
Arbitrary relationship between the entity and it's referent ex: baby asking for bottle
Relationship between a communicative behavior and it's referent ex: when a baby is crying and adult guesses what the baby wants.
Intentional or iconic communication
Transparent (not arbitrary) relationship between the message and it's referent. Ex: child points to toy with parent present.
Purposes for communication
To request, to reject, to comment
3 essential components of communication
1. A sender 2. A receiver 3. A shared symbolic system
Types of feedback
Linguistic (speaking), non linguistic or extra linguistic ( expressions and body language), paralinguistic (pitch, loudness, pausing). Prevents comm. breakdown
3 interrelated domains of language
Content (meaning of language), form (how content is conveyed), use (intention behind utterance)
Languages that focuses on the immediate context
Language with little reliance on the context for conveying content (using your imagination)
Govern the sound we use to make syllables and words
Meaningful sound (39 in English)
15 vowels, 24 consonants
Subtle variations of phonemes that occur due to contextual influences on how we produce phonemes in different words Ex:pop
Rules governing how sounds are organized in words for each language
Govern the internal organization of words. Adds precision to language. Expands vocabulary exponentially.
Govern the internal organization of sentences. Provides structure to our utterances.
Govern the meaning of individual words and word combinations. Considers the meaning of various words and phrases.
Govern how language is used for social purposes. Knowing what to say and how to say it, organizing language for discourse, using language for different functions or intentions. Ex: not standing too close when you talk to someone, saying "thank you when someone opens the door for you"
Rate of acquisition
First 5-7 years are critical/sensitive for language development.
Everyone across the world apply the same cognitive infrastructure to the task of learning language. The way in which children learn language and the time points of achieving certain milestones is fairly invariant across the worlds language communities.
Language is a human capacity.
Shared by no other species, arbitrary relationship between a referent and the language used to describe it. Human language has no boundaries or time or space. Decontextualized events:events that are removed from the present
Combination of a small number of discrete units into seemingly infinite novel creations. Capability of producing an endless amount of ideas and new constructions. Inherent to learning in its earliest stages of acquisition.
Variability among language users. influences: dialect, bilingualism, gender, genetic predisposition, language-learning environment
Natural variations of a language that evolve within specific cultural or geographic boundaries. Number of dialects for a given language tends to increase when: users are spread across a large geographic area, significant geographical barriers isolate a community, social barriers are present within a language community.
2 or more languages.
Code switching: interchanges between the syntax and the vocabulary of the languages being learned.
Simultaneous: develop languages concurrently
Sequential: develop one language and add in a second at a later time.
Girls have an advantage over boys in language development. Start talking earlier than boys. Develop their vocabulary faster in the 2nd year of life. Boys more likely to have difficulties with language development: language impairement.
Twin studies: estimate the contribution of genetics to language development and heritability of language disorders.
Quantity-amount of language child experiences
Quality-characteristics of the language spoken in the care giving environment of the child.
Caregiver responsiveness:promptness, contingency, and appropriateness of caregiver responses to children's bids for communication through words or other means.
Experiences with languages in prominent caregiving environments
Children with language impairment: difficulties in development of language, achieve language milestones more slowly than others, longstanding difficulties with various aspects of language form, content, and use.
Heritable language impairement
SLI-specific language impairment, depressed language abilities with no other impairment. Affects 7-10% of children. Most frequent cause for early intervention. Most common type of comm. impairment affecting kids. Evidence suggests it is a heritable condition.
LI often co-occurs with certain developmental disabilities. Secondary disorder: secondary to another primary cause ex: autism, aspergers.
In utero, perinatally, brain injuries after birth, traumatic brain injury from abuse, car accidents, falling.
Focal brain injury
Affecting only one specific brain region
Diffuse brain injury
Affecting large areas of the brain
Neurological brain systems produce a rough plan of the abstract representation. General instructions are fed forward in syllable chunks to muscle groups involved with speech. /ma/ma/
Abstract representation of speech sound stream is produced. /m/ /a/ /m/ /a/
Air pressure is modulated as respiratory flow is sent forward. Articulatory and oral cavity are manipulated to produce /mama/
Coordination of a breath of air as it is inspired into and then expired from the lungs to travel up through the trachea.
Within the trachea, the breath of air moves through the vocal cords, which are set into vibration to create ones voice.
the breath of air proceeds into the oral and nasal cavities where it resonates
The breath of air is manipulated by the oral articulators-including the tongue, teeth, and jaw
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