BJU World History Chapter 8 Princes and Popes
Terms in this set (66)
the practice of some kings and nobles of appointing church officials and investing in them their religious authority
the buying and selling of church offices
So called "White Monks," after the color of their habits, this order was founded by the Cluniac monk St. Robert of Molesme in 1098. They adopted the Benedictine rule and placed a special emphasis on austerities, farming, simplicity, and strictness in daily life.
Bernard of Clairvaux
a zealous member of the Cistercians, he was an outspoken critic of worldliness in the church and society
College of Cardinals
a church body (group) created so that churchmen could choose the pope
The greatest of the reforming popes
the German emperor who refused to obey the pope (said he would appoint his own bishops) and was excommunicated by the pope
Concordat of Worms
An agreement signed where it recognized the right of the church to elect its own and abbots and to invest them with spiritual authority
"brothers" renouncing worldly possessions and living lives of poverty
Mendicant ("begging") Orders
what they referred to the friars begging for their daily sustenance
Francis of Assisi
Italian monk who founded the Franciscan Order; he devoted his life to serving the poor and sick.
A Spanish nobleman who founded the Dominican Order
Pope who exercised an extensive authority over both church and state
The punishment of an individual by depriving him of the sacraments and excluding him from the fellowship of the church
The suspension of public church services and of the administration of all sacraments (except baptism and extreme unction) in a given location.
A special church court commissioned by the pope to stamp out heresy
Local tribe leaders who assumed the role of protectors. Each ruled like a king in his own territory.
the territory ruled by a duke or duchess
Henry the Fowler "the Fowler"
The first of the Saxon line of German kings
Otto I "the Great"
Henry's son who became one of the strongest German kings
Holy Roman Empire
What the German empire became known as because of the ties to the Roman Church
The family which the German princes chose to choose the king from to end the civil wars
Frederick I "Red Beard"
The German king who sought to restore the glory and stability of the holy empire
The last notable Hohenstaufen ruler, grandson to Frederick I
What German king founded the Holy Roman Empire? In what year did this take place?
Otto I in 962
What did the French philosopher Voltaire observe about the Holy Roman Empire?
That it was "neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire."
What conflicts of interest did many of the German emperors have?
They focused too much on making a unified Italy and forgot to focus on the homeland.
From what family did the German princes choose a king in hopes of ending the period of civil war? List two emperors who belonged to this family.
The Hohenstaufen family: Frederick I and Frederick II.
Alfred the Great ("founder of the English navy")
The king of Wessex who defeated the Danes and founded the English navy
governmental districts in early England
the officials called shire-reeves who governed the shires
Traces the history of England from the Roman times to Alfred's day.
Danish king who conquered England and joined together the Anglo-Saxons and Vikings in 1016
Edward the Confessor (1042-1066)
The Anglo-Saxon king who took the throne after they drove out the Danish people
The powerful earl of Wessex elected king by the English nobles (after Edward the Confessor).
Battle of Hastings
1066 Where William Duke of Normandy and Harold Earl of Wessel fought for the English throne
William "The Conquerer" won and established a new line of English kings.t
feudal vassals whom Williams divided his land among
A book that was created by William the Conqueror (he took a census) to record the taxes of the people.
The king after the Norman line ended, founded the Plantagenet family
Accusations for what crimes had been committed and who the offenders were
uniform laws for all of England that helped ensure justice and create a unified England
Thomas a Becket
Archbishop of Canterbury
Richard I "the lion-hearted"
King who was an able warrior and avid crusader
king after Richard who was weak and spoiled
"great charter" guarantee of feudal rights and one of the most important documents in English history
made the king obey the same laws as the citizens
One of England's most gifted medieval kings
counsel to discuss important matters
an assembly of the great men of the kingdom
power of the purse
The withholding of Parliament's approval of new taxes to force the king to hear their grievances.
The first King of France after the Charlemagne line
A small area in Paris where the Capetians ruled
Philip II "Augustus"
King who became known as the real founder of France
French royal officials whom the king appointed and paid
Louis IX "Saint Louis"
The ideal medieval king; Philip's grandson
Philip IV "The Fair"
King who further expanded royal power over France
Pope who decreed that no king can impose tax on clergy
The meeting of the church, nobility, and townspeople
Pope who called for the first crusade to free the Holy Land from the Turks
Military campaigns for rescuing the Holy Land, there were 8 Crusades in total
The leader of the Muslims in the third crusade who recaptured Jerusalem in 1187.
The time span for the 8 Crusades
What pope called for a holy crusade to free the Holy Land from the Turks? In what year did this occur?
Urban II in 1095
How many major crusades were there? Over what years did they span?
There were 8 Crusades from 1095-1291
What is the nickname for the third crusade? List the kings (with their country) who went on this Crusade.
Nickname for the 3rd Crusade: King's Crusade
Frederick Barbarossa of Germany.
Philip Augustus of France.
Richard the Lion-hearted of England.
To where was the Fourth Crusade "diverted"? Who "diverted" the Crusade?
The Venetians diverted the Fourth Crusade to Constantinople.