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Chapter 7 - Creating a Republic
Terms in this set (48)
a document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government.
bill of rights
list of freedoms that the government promises to protect.
Articles of Confederation
first American Constitution, it created a loose alliance of independent states.
Land Ordinance of 1785
set up a system for settling the Northwest Territory.
set up a government for the Northwest Territory, guaranteed basic rights to settlers, and outlawed slavery there.
a period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises.
a rebellion organized in 1786 by Daniel Shay's, a Massachusetts farmer who had fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill and Saratoga. He and about 1,000 others attacked courthouses and prevented the state from seizing farms of those who could not pay their taxes. The Massachusetts militia eventually put the rebellion down. THIS HELPED LEAD THE STATES TO CALL A CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION.
gathering of state representatives on May 25, 1787, to revise the Articles of Confederation.
proposed at the Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph and James Madison from Virginia, it called for a strong national government with three branches--Executive, judicial and legislative. The legislature was to have two houses based on population.
passes the laws
carry out the laws
system of courts that interprets the laws
New Jersey Plan
proposed by william Paterson of New Jersey, to support the smaller states. It also called for three branches of government, but it provided for a legislature that had only one house where each state would have only one vote.
a settlement in which each side gives up some of its demands in order to reach an agreement.
Roger Sherman of Connecticut worked out a compromise that would satisfy both the large and small states. His plan called for a two house legislature. Members of the lower house, known as the House of Representatives, would be elected by popular vote. As the larger states wished, seats in the lower house would be awarded to each state based on population. Members of the upper house, called the Senate, would be chosen by state legislatures. Each state, no matter it's size, would have two senators.
agreement at the Constitutional Convention that three-fifths of the slaves in any state would be counted in the state's population count.
a government in which citizens rule themselves through elected representatives
Madison, Jefferson and other leaders who laid the groundwork for the United States.
a government in whcih one person or a small group holds complete authority
signed in 1215, a British document that contained two basic ideas: monarchs themselves have to obey the laws, and citizens have basic rights. Used as a tradition of freedom for Americans.
English Bill of Rights
a 1689 document that guaranteed the rights of English citizens. Used as a tradition of freedom for Americans.
the idea that no person could be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime.
separation of powers
designed to keep any person or group from gaining too much power
people who supported the Constitution and favored a strong federal, or national government
people who opposed the Constitution, felt that it made the national government too strong and the states too weak, pushed for the addition of a Bill of Rights.
American Bill of Rights
the first ten amendments to the Constitution, natural rights that should belong to all human beings.
an Enlightenment writer who expressed the idea that the relationship between government and the people it governs is a social contract; an influence on the Constitution.
_____ was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
No court system existed to settle disputes between states
To become a state according to the Northwest Ordinance, a territory had to have...
a population of 60,000 free settlers.
What did the Founding Fathers learn from the example of the Roman Republic?
the value of public service
How did Americans such as George Washington react to the violence of Shay's Rebellion?
They wanted the Articles of Confederation revised.
Who were two of the leading delegates to the Constitutional Convention?
George Washington and Alexander Hamilton
____ is a basic idea of the Magna Carta.
That people have certain guaranteed rights,
The Great Compromise...
resolved that seats in the House of Representatives would be awarded based on population and that two seats would be given to each state in the Senate.
How many states had to ratify the Constitution before it could become law?
9 of 13
States wrote Constitutions...
to spell out the rights of its citizens.
argued that a strong national government could be effective and protect states' rights.
Baron de Montesquieu
an Enlightenment writer that stressed that government powers should be clearly defined and divided; an influence on the Constitution.
_____was a weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
There was no executive to carry out laws,
In the Constitution, what fraction of the slaves in a state were included when determining representation in Congress?
Benjamin Franklin and James Madison were...
delegates to the Constitutional Convention.
The belief that the government had failed to solve the nation's economic problems...
led many people to call for changes to the Articles of Confederation.
According to the Northwest Ordinance...
Once a territory had a population of 60,000 free settlers, it coul ask Congress to be admitted as a new state.
One reason that individual states wrote constitutions was...
to set limits on government powers.
The Bill of Rights...
was added to the Constitution through the amendment process.
was ratified slowly in key battleground states.
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