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Exam Review from the Text, & Study Guide Dr. Edward Waldo

Parts of the Central Nervous System

The Brain and Spinal Cord

Parts of the Peripheral Nervous System

All the Nerves

Autonomic Nervous System

Subdivison of the Peripheral Nervous System

Sense Organ


Peripheral Nercous system is...

the nerves that extend to the outlaying parts of the body

The Branching projection of neuron


This forms myelin outside the central nervous system

Schwann Cell

Also know as EFFERENT

Motor Neuron

Indentionations between adjacent Schwann cells

Nodes of Ranvier

What are groups of warpped axons called


What are tough sheaths that cover the whole nerve?


5 Things to do with Neurons..

Axon, Sensory, Conduct Impulses, Efferent, Neurilemma

5 Parts of the Neuroglia..

Special type of supporting cell, Astrocytes, Forms the myelin sheath around central nerve fibers, Phagocytosis, Multiple Sclerosis

The simplest Kind of Reflex arc is?

Two Neuron Arc

Three neuron arcs consist of what 3 neurons

Sensory, Interneurons, Motor Neurons

Where implulse conduction in a reflex arc starts


What is the microscopic space that seperates the axon of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron?


What is the response to impulse conduction over reflex arcs?


Contraction of a muscle that causes it to pull away from an irritating stimulus is know as the what?

Withdrawl Reflex

What are a group of nerve cell bodies located in teh peripheral nervous system?


All interneurons lie entirely within the what of the Central Nevous System?

Gray Matter

What forms the H shaped inner core of the spianl chord

Gray Matter

Nerve Impulses Do Not..

continually race along every nerve cell's surface

When a sstimulus acts on a neuron it..

increases the permeability of the stimulated point of its membrane to sodium iions

An inward movement of positive ions leaves a Excess of what on theh outside

Negative Ions

What part of the plasma membrane makes up a portion of the synapse?

the Postsynapic Neuron

What is a tiny bulge at the end of the presynapic neurons axon?

Synapic Knob

An example of a Neurotransmitter is


Neurotransmitters are chimicals that allow neruons to do what with each other?


What are distributed specifically into groups o fneurons?


What plays a role in sleep ?


What neurotransmitters inhibit conduction of pain impules?

Endorphins and enkephalins

What is the portion of the brain stem taht joins the spinal cord to the brain?


Functions of the Brain Stem..

Conduct sensory implulse from the spinal chord to higher centers of tehe brain, conduct morot impluses from the cerebrum to spinal cord, control heartbeat, respiration and blood vessel diameter

Two Parts of the Diencephalon

Thalamus & Hypothalamus

ADH is produced by the?


Functions of the Hypothalmus

Control the rate of heartbeat, control the constriction and dialation of blood vessels, control teh contraction of the stomach and intestines

What part of the brain helps in the association of sensations with emotions and aids in the arousal or altering mechanism?


Facts of the Cerebrum

lobes corrospond to the bones that lie over them, most of gray matter lies on the surface of the cerebrum, outer region is called the cerebral cortex

Functions of the Cerebrum

Willed Movement, Consciousness, Memory, Conscious awareness of sensations

What area of the Cerebrum is responsible fore the perception of sound?

Temporal Lobe

Where is Visual Perception Loacated?

Occipital Lobe

Functions of the Cerebellum

maintains equilbrium, helps produce smooth coordinated movements, maints normal postures

Waht are the Islands of grey matter within the interior of the Cerebrum called?

Basal Ganglia

A cerebrovascular accident is commonly referred to as what?

A Stroke

Parkinson's disease is a disease of what?

The Cerebral Nuclei

The largest section of the brain is what?


How long is the spinal cord?

17-18 inches long

Where does the spinal cord end?

the bottom of teh first lumbar vertebra

The White Outer Columns of the Spinal Tracts are made up of what?

Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers (Dendrites)

Ascending tracts conduct impulses where?

Up the cord to the brain

Decending tracts conduct impluses where?

Down the cord from the brain

Cranial Nerves are associated with what?

12 pairs, Vagus, Optic

Spinal nerves are associated with what?

Dermatome, Shingles, 31 Pairs, C1, Plexus

Divison of teh ANS

Sympathetic System

Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses..

Visveral effectors

Voluntary Actions

Somatic Nervous System

Regulates body's involuntary functions

Autonomic Nervous System

Motor Neurons that make up the ANS

Autonomic Neurons

Conduct impulses between the spinal cord and ganglion

Preganglionic Neurons

Dendrites and cell pbodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the

Gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord

Thre are synapsess within what?

sympathetic ganglia

Another Name for the Parasympathetic Nervous sytem is..


Sympathetic Stimulation usually results in ..

Response by numerous organs

Parasympathetic stimulation frequently results in..

Response by only ONE organ

5 Sympathetic Controls..

Produces goose pimples, increases sweat secreation, constricts blood vessels, relaxes bladder, increases epinephrine secretion

5 Parasympathetic Controls...

Constricts pupils, increases secreation of digestive juices, slows heartbeat, increases peristalis, stimulates lens for near vision

What neurotransmitter dose the sympathetic preganglionic axon release


Axons that release noreppinephrine are classified as what?

Andrenegic Fibers

Axons that release acetylcholineaer classified as what?

Cholinergic Fibers

2 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System are..

Regulate the bodys involuntary functions, Helps restore Homeostasis

How is your Heart Rate Determined?

Combined forces of teh sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous System

What can meditaion do to the Symmpathetic Activity

Decrease it

What conducts impulses toward teh cell body


What is the outer cell membrane of teh Schwann cell called


What is the myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord produced by?


What is the simpiest kind of reflex arc?

Two Neuron Arc

A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the?


Each synaptic know besicle contains a very small quantity of a chemical compound called


3 Thinsg in the brain stem..

Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain

A function of the Hypothalamus

regulates body temperature

Bundles of Axons located in the CNS are called


Neurons that conduct impulses from a ganglion..


the Peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite


What are a cluser of nerve cell bodies that are located outside the nervous system?


what is the area of the brain stem?


What is the fatty substance found around some nerve fibers?


Where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another ..


These conduct impulses TOWARD the cell body..


These Conduct impulse AWAY from the cell body..


The name of the outer cell membrane of a schwann cell is called?


The myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord is produced by?


The ANS consists of neurons that conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brain stem to the :

Cardiac Muscle Tissue, Smooth Muscle Tissue, Glandular Epithelial Tissue

Corpus Callosum=



Cranial nerves

Myelin Disorder=

Multiple sclerosis

Slows heartbeat=

Parasympathetic nervous system

Fight or flight=

sympathetic nervou system

Visceral effectors=

autonomic neurons

Parkinsons disease=



Cerebrospinal fluid

Thirty one pairs=

spinal nerves



Cells that make myelin for axons outside the CNS

Schwann Cells

Glia cells that help form teh bood-brain barrier


A single projection that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body is


Cells that make myelin for axons inside the CNS


The white fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axon


Cells that act as microbe-eating scavengers in theCNS


Highly branched part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body


Part of the brainstem that is a conduction pathway between areas of the brain and body and influences respiration


Sensory relay station from various body areas to the cerebal cortex, also involved with emotions and alterting and arousal mechanisms


Carries messages to and from the brain to the rest of the body and mediates reflexes

Spinal Cord

Par of the brainstem that contains cardiac, respiratory, and vas motor centers

Medulla Oblongata

Sensory perception, willed movements, consciousness and memory are mediated where?


Regulates body temperature, water balance, sleep-wake cycles, appetite and sexual arousal


Regulates Muscle coordination, maintenance of equilibrium, and posture


Par of the brainstem that contains relays for visual and auditory impules


Two types of cells found in the Nervous System are?

Neurons and Glia

The three membranes that make up hte meninges are..

Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater

How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?


How many pairs of nervse come from the spinal cord


The autonomic nervous system consistes of neurons that conduct impulsess from the brain or spinal cord to the:

cardiac muscle, smooth muscle,and the glandular epithelial

What are three parts of a Neuron:

Dendrites, cell body and axons

What conduct impulses away from teh brain and spinal cord to muscle and glands:

Motor (Efferent) Neurons

These conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons


What are the three main types of Glial Cells?

Astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes

What are a bundle of peripheral axons called?


A Nerve Tract Consists of what?

Bundles of Central Axons

What is white matter?

Tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons (nerves or tracts)

What surrounds individual fibers within a nerve?


What surrounds a grouop of nerve fibers?


What surrounds the entire nerve?


What consists of sensory neurons synapsing in teh spinal cord with interneurons that synapse with motor neurons?

Three neuron Arcs

What are self propagating waves of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron membrane?

Nerve Impulses

A nerve impulse is marked by what?

inward movement of postitive sodium ions that leave excess of negative ions outside the stimulated point

Two names of neurotransmitters=

acetylcholine, catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin)

Three parts of the brainstem=

Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain

What consistes mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and gray matter?


The hypothalamus functions by=

acts as major center for controlling the ANS, helps control most internal organs, controls hormone secretions of most endrocrine glands, contains center for controlling body temp, appetite, wakefulness and pleasure

What is the second largest part of the human brain?


What is the largest part of the human brain?


Functions as the center for all spinal cord reflexes sensory tracts conduct impulses to the brain, motor tracts conduct impulses from the brain in the...

Spinal cord

The Peripheral Nervous System consists of what two kinds of nerves?

Cranial and Spinal

How many pairs of cranial nerves are attached to the undersuface of the brain?

12 pairs

The PNS connects the brain with the neck structures where

in the thorax and abdomen

a chain of sympathetic ganglia is in front of and at each side of the spinal column

Just an fyi

What serves as the emergency or stress system controlling visceral effectors during strenuous exercise and strong emotions?

The sympathetic nervous system

Group of changes induced by the sympathetic control is called what?

Fight or Flight Response

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