Exam Review from the Text, & Study Guide
Dr. Edward Waldo
Parts of the Central Nervous System
The Brain and Spinal Cord
Parts of the Peripheral Nervous System
All the Nerves
Autonomic Nervous System
Subdivison of the Peripheral Nervous System
Peripheral Nercous system is...
the nerves that extend to the outlaying parts of the body
The Branching projection of neuron
This forms myelin outside the central nervous system
Also know as EFFERENT
Indentionations between adjacent Schwann cells
Nodes of Ranvier
What are groups of warpped axons called
What are tough sheaths that cover the whole nerve?
5 Things to do with Neurons..
Axon, Sensory, Conduct Impulses, Efferent, Neurilemma
5 Parts of the Neuroglia..
Special type of supporting cell, Astrocytes, Forms the myelin sheath around central nerve fibers, Phagocytosis, Multiple Sclerosis
The simplest Kind of Reflex arc is?
Two Neuron Arc
Three neuron arcs consist of what 3 neurons
Sensory, Interneurons, Motor Neurons
Where implulse conduction in a reflex arc starts
What is the microscopic space that seperates the axon of one neuron from the dendrites of another neuron?
What is the response to impulse conduction over reflex arcs?
Contraction of a muscle that causes it to pull away from an irritating stimulus is know as the what?
What are a group of nerve cell bodies located in teh peripheral nervous system?
All interneurons lie entirely within the what of the Central Nevous System?
What forms the H shaped inner core of the spianl chord
Nerve Impulses Do Not..
continually race along every nerve cell's surface
When a sstimulus acts on a neuron it..
increases the permeability of the stimulated point of its membrane to sodium iions
An inward movement of positive ions leaves a Excess of what on theh outside
What part of the plasma membrane makes up a portion of the synapse?
the Postsynapic Neuron
What is a tiny bulge at the end of the presynapic neurons axon?
An example of a Neurotransmitter is
Neurotransmitters are chimicals that allow neruons to do what with each other?
What are distributed specifically into groups o fneurons?
What plays a role in sleep ?
What neurotransmitters inhibit conduction of pain impules?
Endorphins and enkephalins
What is the portion of the brain stem taht joins the spinal cord to the brain?
Functions of the Brain Stem..
Conduct sensory implulse from the spinal chord to higher centers of tehe brain, conduct morot impluses from the cerebrum to spinal cord, control heartbeat, respiration and blood vessel diameter
Two Parts of the Diencephalon
Thalamus & Hypothalamus
ADH is produced by the?
Functions of the Hypothalmus
Control the rate of heartbeat, control the constriction and dialation of blood vessels, control teh contraction of the stomach and intestines
What part of the brain helps in the association of sensations with emotions and aids in the arousal or altering mechanism?
Facts of the Cerebrum
lobes corrospond to the bones that lie over them, most of gray matter lies on the surface of the cerebrum, outer region is called the cerebral cortex
Functions of the Cerebrum
Willed Movement, Consciousness, Memory, Conscious awareness of sensations
What area of the Cerebrum is responsible fore the perception of sound?
Where is Visual Perception Loacated?
Functions of the Cerebellum
maintains equilbrium, helps produce smooth coordinated movements, maints normal postures
Waht are the Islands of grey matter within the interior of the Cerebrum called?
A cerebrovascular accident is commonly referred to as what?
Parkinson's disease is a disease of what?
The Cerebral Nuclei
The largest section of the brain is what?
How long is the spinal cord?
17-18 inches long
Where does the spinal cord end?
the bottom of teh first lumbar vertebra
The White Outer Columns of the Spinal Tracts are made up of what?
Bundles of myelinated nerve fibers (Dendrites)
Ascending tracts conduct impulses where?
Up the cord to the brain
Decending tracts conduct impluses where?
Down the cord from the brain
Cranial Nerves are associated with what?
12 pairs, Vagus, Optic
Spinal nerves are associated with what?
Dermatome, Shingles, 31 Pairs, C1, Plexus
Divison of teh ANS
Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses..
Somatic Nervous System
Regulates body's involuntary functions
Autonomic Nervous System
Motor Neurons that make up the ANS
Conduct impulses between the spinal cord and ganglion
Dendrites and cell pbodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the
Gray matter of the thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord
Thre are synapsess within what?
Another Name for the Parasympathetic Nervous sytem is..
Sympathetic Stimulation usually results in ..
Response by numerous organs
Parasympathetic stimulation frequently results in..
Response by only ONE organ
5 Sympathetic Controls..
Produces goose pimples, increases sweat secreation, constricts blood vessels, relaxes bladder, increases epinephrine secretion
5 Parasympathetic Controls...
Constricts pupils, increases secreation of digestive juices, slows heartbeat, increases peristalis, stimulates lens for near vision
What neurotransmitter dose the sympathetic preganglionic axon release
Axons that release noreppinephrine are classified as what?
Axons that release acetylcholineaer classified as what?
2 Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System are..
Regulate the bodys involuntary functions, Helps restore Homeostasis
How is your Heart Rate Determined?
Combined forces of teh sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous System
What can meditaion do to the Symmpathetic Activity
What conducts impulses toward teh cell body
What is the outer cell membrane of teh Schwann cell called
What is the myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord produced by?
What is the simpiest kind of reflex arc?
Two Neuron Arc
A ganglion is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the?
Each synaptic know besicle contains a very small quantity of a chemical compound called
3 Thinsg in the brain stem..
Medulla Oblongata, Pons, Midbrain
A function of the Hypothalamus
regulates body temperature
Bundles of Axons located in the CNS are called
Neurons that conduct impulses from a ganglion..
the Peripheral beginning of a sensory neuron's dendrite
What are a cluser of nerve cell bodies that are located outside the nervous system?
what is the area of the brain stem?
What is the fatty substance found around some nerve fibers?
Where impulses are transmitted from one neuron to another ..
These conduct impulses TOWARD the cell body..
These Conduct impulse AWAY from the cell body..
The name of the outer cell membrane of a schwann cell is called?
The myelin sheath in the brain and spinal cord is produced by?
The ANS consists of neurons that conduct impulses from the spinal cord or brain stem to the :
Cardiac Muscle Tissue, Smooth Muscle Tissue, Glandular Epithelial Tissue
Parasympathetic nervous system
Fight or flight=
sympathetic nervou system
Thirty one pairs=
Cells that make myelin for axons outside the CNS
Glia cells that help form teh bood-brain barrier
A single projection that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body is
Cells that make myelin for axons inside the CNS
The white fatty substance that surrounds and insulates the axon
Cells that act as microbe-eating scavengers in theCNS
Highly branched part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body
Part of the brainstem that is a conduction pathway between areas of the brain and body and influences respiration
Sensory relay station from various body areas to the cerebal cortex, also involved with emotions and alterting and arousal mechanisms
Carries messages to and from the brain to the rest of the body and mediates reflexes
Par of the brainstem that contains cardiac, respiratory, and vas motor centers
Sensory perception, willed movements, consciousness and memory are mediated where?
Regulates body temperature, water balance, sleep-wake cycles, appetite and sexual arousal
Regulates Muscle coordination, maintenance of equilibrium, and posture
Par of the brainstem that contains relays for visual and auditory impules
Two types of cells found in the Nervous System are?
Neurons and Glia
The three membranes that make up hte meninges are..
Dura Mater, Arachnoid, Pia Mater
How many pairs of cranial nerves are there?
How many pairs of nervse come from the spinal cord
The autonomic nervous system consistes of neurons that conduct impulsess from the brain or spinal cord to the:
cardiac muscle, smooth muscle,and the glandular epithelial
What are three parts of a Neuron:
Dendrites, cell body and axons
What conduct impulses away from teh brain and spinal cord to muscle and glands:
Motor (Efferent) Neurons
These conduct impulses from sensory neurons to motor neurons
What are the three main types of Glial Cells?
Astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes
What are a bundle of peripheral axons called?
A Nerve Tract Consists of what?
Bundles of Central Axons
What is white matter?
Tissue composed primarily of myelinated axons (nerves or tracts)
What surrounds individual fibers within a nerve?
What surrounds a grouop of nerve fibers?
What surrounds the entire nerve?
What consists of sensory neurons synapsing in teh spinal cord with interneurons that synapse with motor neurons?
Three neuron Arcs
What are self propagating waves of electrical disturbance that travels along the surface of a neuron membrane?
A nerve impulse is marked by what?
inward movement of postitive sodium ions that leave excess of negative ions outside the stimulated point
Two names of neurotransmitters=
acetylcholine, catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin)
Three parts of the brainstem=
Medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
What consistes mainly of the posterior pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and gray matter?
The hypothalamus functions by=
acts as major center for controlling the ANS, helps control most internal organs, controls hormone secretions of most endrocrine glands, contains center for controlling body temp, appetite, wakefulness and pleasure
What is the second largest part of the human brain?
What is the largest part of the human brain?
Functions as the center for all spinal cord reflexes sensory tracts conduct impulses to the brain, motor tracts conduct impulses from the brain in the...
The Peripheral Nervous System consists of what two kinds of nerves?
Cranial and Spinal
How many pairs of cranial nerves are attached to the undersuface of the brain?
The PNS connects the brain with the neck structures where
in the thorax and abdomen
a chain of sympathetic ganglia is in front of and at each side of the spinal column
Just an fyi
What serves as the emergency or stress system controlling visceral effectors during strenuous exercise and strong emotions?
The sympathetic nervous system
Group of changes induced by the sympathetic control is called what?
Fight or Flight Response
Each parasympathetic neuron syapses with postganglionic neurons to only ONE effector
Just and fyi
Name two Autonomic Neurotransmitters
Cholinergic Fibers & Adrenergic Fibers
Cholinergic Fibers result in the release of what?
Adrenergic Fibers result in the release of what?
That's All for This Nutty Chapter!!
HERES TO ANOTHER "A" FOR THE BOTH OF US :) See More