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Terms in this set (43)
What do we mean by old growth forests and closed canopy forests?
Old growth forests are trees that are free from human disturbance for 150 to 200 years and are old enough to have mature trees. They are the quintessential equilibrium ecosystem. While closed canopy forests are where tree crowns cover most of the ground.
What continent is experiencing the greatest forest losses?
What is REDD and how might it work?
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation
Paying countries to stop cutting down forests
Sponsored by united nations
Why is fire suppression a controversial strategy?
Ecologists think that fires are necessary because it clears the area of debree and brush and will lead to a large scale fire in the future. Because loggers think that it's a waste of valuable resources and people that live in fire prone areas get worried about fires
What percent of US lands are in poor or very poor conditions due to overgrazing?why do some groups say grazing fees amount to a hidden subsidy?
55% the government charges them 25% less of the cost of private land
What is rotational grazing and how does it mimic nature?
Confining grazing animals in a small area for a short time to force them to eat weeds as well as more desirable grasses and also add natural fertilizer to the ground. It mimics wild herds.
How do the size and design of nature preserves influence their effectiveness?
What do landscapes ecologists mean by interior habitat and edge effects?
Edge effects- change at the boundary between two ecosystems
The smaller the habitat the larger percentage of edges and smaller percent of interior habitat
What percent of the earths land area has some sort of protected status? How has the amount of protected areras changed globally?
13%. It has increased exponentally over the past 100 years. More than 70,000 sites created since 1920s
what is ecotourism and why is it important?
Tourism that is ecologically and socially sustainable, more beneficial than extacive industries like logging and mining
What is a biosphere reserve and how does it differ from a wilderness area or wildlife preserve?
A biosphere reserve is protected areas divided into zones with set up portions. Created by unsco(united nations scientific cultural and organizational) man in nature program in 1986. A wilderness area is an area with little to no human impact allowed and mostly restricted to scientists. A wildlife preserve is allowed little to medium impact
What is Brazils Cerrado and how is agriculture affecting it?
The cerrado is a region that lends itself to agriculture. The increasing demand of soybeans is so large that the region is only starting to produce soybeans leading to a decreased amount of biodiversity
Explain how soybeans grown in Brazil are improving diets in china?
Because the soybeans are cheap, they are easily able to be exported to china
What does it mean to be chronically undernourished? How many people in the world currently suffer from this condition?
continuously undernourished for long lasting periods of time. 854 million people (1 every 8)
Why do nutritionists worry about food security? Who is most likely to suffer from food insecurity?
Nutrionists worry about it because its complex and on many levels. (explain to self. If someone loses their job, famine). Poor people
Describe the conditions that constitute a famine. Why does amartya sen say that famines are caused by more politics and economics than natural disasters?
1)large scale death
corrupt governments and greedy elites
Describe malnutrition and obesity. How many americans are now considered obese?
Nutritional imbalance caused by lack of specific dietary components or the inability to asorb or utilize essential nutrients
More than 20% over the ideal weight for height and sex
What three crops provide most human caloric intake?
Wheat, soy and corn
What is soil? why are soil organisms so important?
Soil is a combination of 6 components
1. Sand and gravel
2. Silt and clay
3. Dead organic material
4. Soil fauna and flora
They help to recycle litter into nutrients for plants and give soil structure and loose texture.
What do we mean by the green revolution.
An agriculutural statagey that make crops that have higher yields by using more fertilizer and pesticide. A result of the need to increase food production because of the increase demand for food
what is genetic engineering and how can it help or hurt agriculture.
Splicing a gene from one organism into another has the potential to increase the quality and quantity of our food supply.
Helps- increasing yields, decrease crop losses
Hurts- don't know a lot about it and decreases biodiversity and creation of resistance in pests
what is sustainable agriculture.
Ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just agricultural system. Where stewardship, soil conservation and integrated pest management are essential.
Aims to reduce or repair damages caused by destructive practices
how could your choices of coffee or cocoa help preserve forests, biodiversity and local economies in tropical countries?
You can buy shade grown coffee, which increases biodiversity and decreases pesticides, herbicides.
What are the economic advantages of low input farming?
The consumer preserves different types of crops and doesn't buy things that have pesticides. Buying grass-fed animals help with soil erosion and full use of the land.
define health and disease
Health- a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
Disease- abnormal change in the body condition that impairs important physical or psychological functions
Define emergent diseases and give some recent examples
Diseases not previously known of or have been absent for at least 20 years (west Nile, Ebola, aids, czars)
Name the 5 leading causes of global disease burden expected by 2020
1) heart disease
3) traffic accidents
5) chronic lung disease
what is conservation medicine?
Attempts to understand how changes we make in our environment threaten our health as well as that of natural communities on which we depend
What is the difference between toxic and hazardous? Give examples.
Toxic means poisonous.
Toxicology is the study of the adverse effects of external factors on an organism or a system
Hazardous materials aren't necessarily toxic. Some substances are dangerous because they are flammable explosive acidic irritants or sensitizers.
Toxic and hazardous- lead, chloroform, arsenic, mercury
endocrine disrupters and why are they a concern
chemicals that interfere with the function of endocrine hormones like estrogen, testosterone, adrenaline, or cotisone, causes abnormal growth
what are bioaccumulation and biomagnification?
Bioaccumulation- the selective absorption and storage of a great variety of molecules
Biomagnification- when the toxic burden of a large number of organisms at a lower trophic level is accumulated and concentrated by a predator in a higher trophic level
Distinguish between acute and chronic toxicity?
Why is atrazine a concern?
What are the dominant gases that make up clean, dry air?
78% nitrogen, almost 21% oxygen, remaining 1% argon, co2 and variety
0-4% water vapor
what is the greenhouse effect? What is a greenhouse gas?
The increase of greenhouse gases causing solar radiation to be reflected down and then the earth releases it back. Describes
Albeto- the color white has high energy reflection, color back has low energy reflection
he capture of energy by gases in the atmosphere. energy moves up from the earths surface into the atmosphere and it is then trapped and is reabsorbed into the earth
co2, n2o, ch4 are greenhouse gases
4 layers of atmosphere:
1) trophosphere- earthly weather happens here, redistributes heat, convection currents
2) trophopause- temoary boundary
3) stratosphere- ozone layer, absorbs heat, no water vapor
what are some factors that influence natural climate variation?
1)orbital electricity elipse
2)variation of tilt
volcano eruptions and glaciers
What is a monsoon and why is it seasonal?
Heavy seasonal storms of constant rain caused by heating of ocean during the summer months because the water evaporates so quickly
What is a cyclonic storm?
Storm that spins because of a high or low pressure system that spins because of massive air masses or coreolous effect or jet stream (ex: hurricanes, typhoon)
What is the ipcc and what is its function?
The international panal on climate change, a collaboration of scientists and government officials from 130 countries that review scientific evidence on causes and effects of human caused climate change
What is the Kyoto protocol?
A treaty set different limits for individual nations depending on their output before 1990s. poor nations such as china were exempt from emission limits to allow development to increase their standard of living. Wealthy countries created the problem so wealthy nations should solve it. The US took a lead role in negotiation but did not sign it.
List 5 effects of climate change
Rising sea levels, increase hurricanes, shifting, warmer climates, increase global temperature,
What is a climate stabilization wedge? Why is it important?
Lists examples of things to reduce carbon footprint and the percentages
explain the following: hadley cells, jet streams, Coriolis effect
coreolous effect- caused by spinning of earth, causes northern hemisphere to rear to right, southern rears to left
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