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How have human populations grown?

(1) expanding into ecosystems (2) technological innovations (3) sanitation

Earth's human population

6.6 billion

What is the mathematical trend in human population growth?


How has the rate of human population growth changed?

it is slower

What is the human population's optimum sustainable population on the earth based on?

cultural carrying capacity

T or F: Both population growth and food production grow exponentially.


General factors influencing human population growth or decline.

(1) fertility (2) mortality (3) migration

Formula for population change.

Births and immigration minus deaths and emigration.

Crude birth rate

Number of live births per 1000 people in a given year.

Crude death rate

Number of deaths per 1000 people in a given year.

Population rankings in 2006

China, India, United States


Number of children born to a particular woman.

Types of fertility rates

(1) replacement-level fertility (2) total fertility rate (TFR)

replacement-level fertility

number of children a couple must have to replace themselves; average 2.1 (some children die before reaching reproductive age)

total fertility rate (TFR)

average number of children a woman typically has (2.7)

Period between 1946-1964

baby-boom (high TFR)

Period beyond 1964

baby-bust (TFR near replacement level)

Reasons for baby-bust

(1) delayed marriage (2) contraceptives (3) abortion

US's estimated 2050 population

420 million

How children's roles affect population growth/decline.

(1) importance of children as part of labor force (2) cost of raising and educating children (3) infant mortality rate

How women's roles affect population growth/decline.

(1) educational and employment opportunities for women (2) average marriage age (3) birth control availability (4) religious beliefs, customs

Reasons for decline in death rates

(1) increased food supplies (2) better nutrition (3) advances in medicine (4) improved sanitation and hygiene (5) safer water

Indicators of overall health of people in a country or region

(1) life expectancy (2) infant mortality rate

US life expectancy for 2006 and 2050

(1) 78 (2) 82

Factor causing lowering of life expectancy in Africa


What does a high infant mortality indicate?

(1) undernutrition (not enough food) (2) malnutrition (3) high incidence of infectious disease

T or F? Infant mortality rate of the planet is increasing.


Factors in US infant mortality rate being higher than that of Singapore.

(1) inadequate health care for pregnant poor women and their children (2) drug addiction among pregnant women (3) a birth rate among teenagers

Common reasons for emigration from a country.

(1) lack of jobs (2) economy (3) religious persecution (4) wars (5) environmental degradations (6) population pressures (7) poverty

T or F? Immigration accounts for 44% of US population growth.


age structure

distribution of males and females in each age group in the world's population

Age structure categories

(1) prereproductive (2) reproductive (3) postreproductive

Major factor in a country's future population growth and unemployment crises.

number of people younger than age 15

Neutral long-term effect of the American baby boom

In future years there will be more older Americans than ever.

Negative long-term effects of the American baby boom

(1) members of baby-bust may have trouble being hired b/c those jobs may be choked up with baby boomers (2) many boomers may delay retirement

Reasons American baby boomers may delay retirement

(1) improved health (2) need to improve retirement funds (3) extension of retirement age to collect Social Security

Negative long-term effects of frequent baby bursts in a country

(1) sharp rise in older people (2) less government revenues with fewer workers (3) less entrepreneurship and new business formation (4) less likelihood for new technology development (5) increasing public deficits to fund higher pension and healthcare costs

Effects of global aging

(1) fewer young people available for military service (2) parents with only 1-2 children will be more reluctant to support military ventures that could wipe out offspring (3) increased competition btwn local populace and military for limited government funds (due to senior care)

How do deaths from AIDS disrupt a country's social/economic structure?

(1) mostly kills young adults, who are most of the work force (2) reduces life expectancy

How can we help countries ravaged by AIDS?

(1) reduce spread of HIV thru combination of improved education and health care (2) provide financial assistance for education and health care as well as volunteer teachers ad healthcare/social workers to help compensate for missing young adults

demographic transition (industrial)

as countries become industrialized, first their death rates then their birth rates decline

Stages of demographic transition

(1) preindustrial stage (2) transitional stage (food production rises, healthcare improves, high birth rate) (3) industrial stage (birth rate drops) (4) postindustrial stage (further declined births, even population loss)

demographic trap

As countries try to industrialize, the population increase at Stage 2 may outstrip economic growth and overwhelm local life-support systems, causing them to revert back to Stage 1.

Other factors leading to a demographic trap

(1) shortages of skilled laborers (2) lack of financial capital (3) large debts to developed countries (4) drop in economic assistance from developed countries

family planning

Reduces the number of births and abortions by providing educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them.

Effects of family planning

(1) lower birth and abortion rate (2) increase in rates of married women who use contraceptives (3) lowered risk of maternal and fetal death from pregnancy

Limits of family planning

(1) undeveloped countries still have huge rates of unplanned pregnancies and abortions (42 and 26%) (2) 201 million couples in developing countries want to plan their families but lack family planning services.

Three factors leading to women having fewer and healthier children

(1) education (2) employment (3) unsuppressed rights

Women account for ___ of all hours worked and ___ of the world's income.

(1) 2/3 (2) 1/10

How can India and China slow population growth?

(1) sterilization programs for the poor (2) family planning (3) better infrastructure, sanitation, healthcare, education, nutrition and women's rights

Why may China soon start relaxing the one-child population control policy?

"bride shortage" may lead to (1) declining work force (2) lack of funds for supporting continuing economic development (3) fewer family members to care for the growing number of elderly people

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