How have human populations grown?
(1) expanding into ecosystems (2) technological innovations (3) sanitation
What is the human population's optimum sustainable population on the earth based on?
cultural carrying capacity
General factors influencing human population growth or decline.
(1) fertility (2) mortality (3) migration
number of children a couple must have to replace themselves; average 2.1 (some children die before reaching reproductive age)
How children's roles affect population growth/decline.
(1) importance of children as part of labor force (2) cost of raising and educating children (3) infant mortality rate
How women's roles affect population growth/decline.
(1) educational and employment opportunities for women (2) average marriage age (3) birth control availability (4) religious beliefs, customs
Reasons for decline in death rates
(1) increased food supplies (2) better nutrition (3) advances in medicine (4) improved sanitation and hygiene (5) safer water
Indicators of overall health of people in a country or region
(1) life expectancy (2) infant mortality rate
What does a high infant mortality indicate?
(1) undernutrition (not enough food) (2) malnutrition (3) high incidence of infectious disease
Factors in US infant mortality rate being higher than that of Singapore.
(1) inadequate health care for pregnant poor women and their children (2) drug addiction among pregnant women (3) a birth rate among teenagers
Common reasons for emigration from a country.
(1) lack of jobs (2) economy (3) religious persecution (4) wars (5) environmental degradations (6) population pressures (7) poverty
Major factor in a country's future population growth and unemployment crises.
number of people younger than age 15
Neutral long-term effect of the American baby boom
In future years there will be more older Americans than ever.
Negative long-term effects of the American baby boom
(1) members of baby-bust may have trouble being hired b/c those jobs may be choked up with baby boomers (2) many boomers may delay retirement
Reasons American baby boomers may delay retirement
(1) improved health (2) need to improve retirement funds (3) extension of retirement age to collect Social Security
Negative long-term effects of frequent baby bursts in a country
(1) sharp rise in older people (2) less government revenues with fewer workers (3) less entrepreneurship and new business formation (4) less likelihood for new technology development (5) increasing public deficits to fund higher pension and healthcare costs
Effects of global aging
(1) fewer young people available for military service (2) parents with only 1-2 children will be more reluctant to support military ventures that could wipe out offspring (3) increased competition btwn local populace and military for limited government funds (due to senior care)
How do deaths from AIDS disrupt a country's social/economic structure?
(1) mostly kills young adults, who are most of the work force (2) reduces life expectancy
How can we help countries ravaged by AIDS?
(1) reduce spread of HIV thru combination of improved education and health care (2) provide financial assistance for education and health care as well as volunteer teachers ad healthcare/social workers to help compensate for missing young adults
demographic transition (industrial)
as countries become industrialized, first their death rates then their birth rates decline
Stages of demographic transition
(1) preindustrial stage (2) transitional stage (food production rises, healthcare improves, high birth rate) (3) industrial stage (birth rate drops) (4) postindustrial stage (further declined births, even population loss)
As countries try to industrialize, the population increase at Stage 2 may outstrip economic growth and overwhelm local life-support systems, causing them to revert back to Stage 1.
Other factors leading to a demographic trap
(1) shortages of skilled laborers (2) lack of financial capital (3) large debts to developed countries (4) drop in economic assistance from developed countries
Reduces the number of births and abortions by providing educational and clinical services that help couples choose how many children to have and when to have them.
Effects of family planning
(1) lower birth and abortion rate (2) increase in rates of married women who use contraceptives (3) lowered risk of maternal and fetal death from pregnancy
Limits of family planning
(1) undeveloped countries still have huge rates of unplanned pregnancies and abortions (42 and 26%) (2) 201 million couples in developing countries want to plan their families but lack family planning services.
Three factors leading to women having fewer and healthier children
(1) education (2) employment (3) unsuppressed rights
How can India and China slow population growth?
(1) sterilization programs for the poor (2) family planning (3) better infrastructure, sanitation, healthcare, education, nutrition and women's rights