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MODULE 4-A TISSUE, MEMBRANES AND WOUND HEALING

STUDY
PLAY
TISSUE
A COLLECTION OF CELLS THAT SHARE A SIMILAR STRUCTURE AND ARE ORGANIZED TO PERFORM A SPECIFIC FUNCTION
EPITHELIAL TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS BOUND BY CONNECTIVE MATERIAL AND VARYING IN THE NUMBER OF LAYERS AND IN THE KINDS OF CELLS
EPITHELIAL TISSUES FORMS
THE EPITHELIEUM
THE EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE BODY IS MADE OF
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS SELLS
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL CELLS
STRATIFIED COLUMNAR CELL
EPITHELIUM:
THE COVERING OF THE INTERNAL ORGANS OF THE BODY, ALSO THE LINING OF THE VESSELS,BODY CAVITIES, GLANS AND ORGANS
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
DENSE TISSUE CONTAINING LARGE NUMBERS OF CELLS AND LARGE AMOUNTS OF INTERCELLULAR MATERIAL COMPOSED OF FIBERS IN A MATRIX OR GROUND SUBSTANCE THAT MAY BE LIQUID, GELATINOUS OR SOLID
NERVE TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF ONE OR MORE BUNDLES OF IMPULSE CARRYING FIBERS THAT CONNECT THE BRAIN AND THE SPINAL CORD WITH OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY
MUSCLE TISSUE
TISSUE COMPOSED OF FIBERS THAT ARE ABLE TO CONTRACT, CAUSING AND ALLOWING MOVEMENT OF THE PARTS AND ORGANS OF THE BODY
FUNCTIONS OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE
PROVIDES A PROTECTIVE BARRIER AGAINST EXTREME TEMPATURES,ENVIROMENTAL CONTAMINANTS AND INVASIONS BY ORGANISMS WHILE ALLOWING SECRETION AND EXCRETION OF WASTE
FUNCTIONS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
BINDS TO OTHER TISSUE STRUCTURES TO SUPPORT AND ORGANIZE THE BODY; BINDS TO FOREIGN CELLS TO PROTECT THE BODY; BINDS TO MOLECULES TO TRANSPORT MATERIALS THROUGH THE BODY
FUNCTIONS OF NERVE TISSUE
CONDUCTS ELECTRICAL SIGNALS THROUGH THE BODY
FUNCTIONS OF MUSCLE TISSUE
ALLOWS THE MOVEMENT OF THE MOVEABLE STRUCTURES OF THE BODY
THE EPITHELIEUM COVERS
THE BODY AND MANY OF ITS PARTS
THE EPITHELIEUM LINES THE BODY'S
SEROUS CAVITIES
BLOOD AND LYMPH VESSELS
RESPIRATORY TRACTS
DIGESTIVE TRACTS
URINARY TRACTS
SEROUS
EPITHELIAL TISSUE THAT LINES CLOSED BODY CAVITIES AND COVERS THE ORGANS IN THAT CAVITY
THE BODYS GLANDS CONSIST
OF EPITHELIAL TISSUE
CELLS THAT COMPOSE THE EPITHELIUM ARE COMPACTLY ARRANGED WITH
LITTLE INTERCELLULAR SUBSTANCE
THE EPITHELIUM ALWAYS RESTS ON A LAYER OF
CONNECTIVE TISSUE WITH A BASEMENT MEMBRANE BETWEEN THEM
THERE ARE NO CAPILLARIES WITHIN THE EPITHELIUM, WHICH MEANS THAT OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS
MUST BE PROVIDED BY THE UNDERLYING CONNECTIVE TISSUE THROUGH DIFFUSION
MEMBRANE
A THIN LAYER OF TISSUE THAT COVERS A SURFACE, LINES A CAVITY OR DIVIDES A SPACE
BASEMENT MEMBRANE
THE FRAGILE, NONCELLULAR LAYER OF TISSUE THAT SECURES THE OVERLYING LAYERS OF STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
DIFFUSION
THE PROCESS OF A SUBSTANCE MOVING FROM AN AREA OF HIGH CONCENTRATION TO AN AREA OF LOWER CONCENTRATION
EPITHELIAL CELLS UNDERGO CONSTANT MITOSIS IN ORDER TO
REPLACE THE OUTER LAYER CELLS THAT ARE LOST THROUGH WEAR AND EXPOSURE TO FORCES AND THE ENVIROMENT
EPITHELIAL TISSUE CAN BE CLASSISIFED BY THE
SHAPE AND ITS CELLS AND BY ITS TISSUE LAYER ARRANGEMENT. WHETHER OR NOT THE TISSUE CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS OR MULTIPLE LAYERS
SQUAMOUS TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF FLAT CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEMBLE SCALES
CUBOIDAL TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEMBLE SQUARE BOXES, HAVING DIMENSIONS APPROXIMATELY THE SAME HEIGHT, WIDTH, AND DEPTH
COLUMNAR TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF CELLS THAT SOMEWHAT RESEAMBLE RECTANGULAR BOXES, HAVING ONE DIMENSION THAT IS LONGER THAN THE OTHERS
SIMPLE TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF A SINGLE LAYER OF CELLS
STRATIFIED TISSUE
TISSUE CONSISTING OF MORE THAN ONE LAYER OF CELLS, MULTIPLE LAYERS
STRATIFIED TISSUES ARE ONLY FORMED BY
SQUAMOUS CELLS ONLY
FUNCTIONS OF SQUAMOUS TISSUE
LINES THE BLOOD VESSELS AND THE ALVEOLI, THE THINNESS OF THE TISSUE ALLOWS GASES AND CHEMICALS TO PASS THROUGH THE TISSUE
FUNCTIONS OF CUDOIDAL TISSUE
LINES GLANDS SUCH AS THE THYROID AND SALIVARY GLANDS, THE SHAPE OF THE TISSUE PROMOTES SECRETION OF CHEMICALS BY THE GLANDS
ALVEOLUS
ONE OF THE MANY SMALL SACS WITHIN THE LUNGS IN WHICH THE EXCHANGE OF GASES TAKE PLACE, ABSORBING OXYGEN AND RELEASING CARBON DIOXIDE
FUNCTIONS OF COLUMNAR TISSUE
LINES THE STOMACH AND INTESTINES AND SECRETES GASTRIC JUICES AND ENZYMES, SOME HAVE CILLIA TO SWEEP SUBSTANCES ALONG, SUCH AS THOSE THAT LINE THE FALLOPIAN TUBES AND MOVE AN OVUM TOWARD THE UTERUS
FUNSTIONS OF THE SIMPLE TISSUE
FORMS THE SINGLE LAYER LININGS OF THE CAPILLARIES, THE THYROID GLAND AND THE STOMACH, THE THINNESS OF THE TISSUE ALLOWS GASES AND OTHER SUBSTANCES TO GO IN AND OUT THROUGH THE TISSUE
SIMPLE TISSUE IN THE CAPILLARIES CONSISTS OF
SQUAMOUS CELLS
SIMPLE TISSUE IN THR TYROID CONSISTS OF
CUDOIDAL CELLS
SIMPLE TISSUE IN THE STOMACH CONSISTS OF
COLUMNAR CELLS
FUNCTIONS OF THE STRATIFIED TISSUE
FORMS THE OUTER LAYER OF THE LAYER OF THE SKIN AND THE LINING OF THE ESOPHAGUS AND THE VAGINA, THE THICKNESS OF THE TISSUE AND ITS SECRETIONS HELP TO PROTECT THE BODY AGAINST PATHOGENS
THE MOST COMMON TISSUE IN THE BODY IS
CONNECTIVE
WHAT PROTECTS AND SUPPORTS THE ORGANS, TRANSPORTS SUBSTANCES AND BINDS BODY STRUCTURES
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
RETICULAR TISSUE
LOCATED IN THE SPLEEN, LYMPH NODES AND BONE MARROW; FILTERS HARMFUL SUBSTANCES FROM THE BLOOD AND LYMPH
AREOLAR TISSUE
LOCATED IN LOSSE ACCUMULATIONS BETWEEN TISSUES AND ORGANS, CONNECTS TISSUES
ADIPOSE TISSUE
LOCATED UNDER THE SKIN, PROVIDES PADDING, INSULATION AND A PLACE TO STORE FATS
FIBROUS TISSUE
LOCATED IN TENDONS,LIGAMENTS, DEEP FASCIA, DERMIS AND THE KIDNEYS PROVIDES STRONG, FLEXIBLE CONNECTIONS AND THE FORMATION OF SCARS
TENDON
A FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT CONNECTS MUSCLE TO BONES
LIGAMENTS
A FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT JOINS ONE BONE TO ANOTHER
DEEP FASCIA
A BAND OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT COVERS OR BINDS TOGETHER BODY STRUCTURES WITHIN BODY CAVITIES
DERMIS
THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT MAKES UP MTHE INNER LAYER OF SKIN
BONE TISSUE
LOCATED IN THE SKELETON, FORMS BONES TO SUPPORT THE BODY AND PROTECT ORGANS AND TISSUE
CARTILAGE TISSUE
LOCATED IN THE NOSE, EARS, TRACHEA AND EUSTACHIAN TUBES AND AT BONE JOINTS, PROVIDES A FIRM BUT NOT RIGID STRUCTURE AND PADDING BETWEEN BONES
TRACHEA
THE WINDPIPE
EUSTACHIAN TUBE
A CANAL THAT ALLOWS AIR TO PASS BETWEEN THE MIDDLE EAR CAVITY AND THE NASOPHARYNGEAL CAVITY
BLOOD TISSUE
LOCATED THROUGHOUT THE BLOOD SYSTEM, TRANSPORTS MATERIALS, INCLUDING OXYGEN, THROUGHOUT THE BODY AND COMBATS FOREIGN ORGANISMS AND CELLS
LYMPHATIC TISSUE
LOCATED IN THE LYMPH NODES, SPLEEN, TONSILS AND THYMUS; FORMS CERTAIN TYPES OF WHITE BLOOD CELLS
MYELOID TISSUE
LOCATED IN THE BONE MARROW, FORMS RED AND WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND PLATELETS
PLATELET
A BLOOD CELL THAT HELPS THE CLOTTING PROCESS USED TO SEAL A WOUND
ELASTIC TISSUE
LOCATED ALONG THE WALLS OF THE LARGE ARTERIES AND ALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS; HELPS IN MAINTAINING BLOOD PRESSURE IN THE BLOOD SYSTEM AND IN THE EXHALATION OF BREATH IN THE LUNGS
NEURONS
THE BASIC NERVE TISSUE CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM THAT ARE CAPABLE OF GENERATING ELECTROCHEMICAL IMPULSES THAT CARRY INFORMATION TO AND FROM THE BRAIN
NEUROGLIA
THE SUPPORTING OR CONNECTING TISSUE CELLS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
NEURONS CONSIST OF A CELL BODY AND 2 EXTENSIONS
AXONS AND DENDRITES
A NEURON WILL HAVE
1 AXON BUT MAY HAVE SEVERAL DENDRITES
AXON
CARRIES NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPULSES FROM THE CELL BODY
DENDRITE
CARRIES NERVOUS SYSTEM IMPULSES TO THE CELL BODY
CELL BODY
PERFORMS METABOLIC AND REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS FOR THE CELL
NEURONS ARE SURRONED BY SPECIALIZED CELLS THAT FORM THE
SHEATH OF SCHWANN
( WHICH ELECTRICALLY ISOLATES NEURONS)
SHEATH
A COVERING, ESPECIALLY A LOOSE FITTING ONE
THE AXON OF ONE NEUTRON IS SEPERATED FROM A DENDRITE OF AN ADJOINING NEURON BY A SPACE CALLED
SYNAPSE
NERVE SYSTEM IMPULSES CANNOT CROSS THE SYNAPSE INLESS ITS FILLED WITH SPECIAL CHEMICALS CALLED
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
WHAT ARE THE THREE KINDS OF NEURONS
SENSORY
MOTOR
INTERNEURONS
SENSORY NEURONS AKA
AFFERENT NEURONS
SENSORY NEURONS
CARRY SIGNALS FROM RECEPTORS IN THE SKIN
SKELETAL MUSCLES
JOINTS
AND ORGANT TO THE CNS
MOTOR NEURONS AKA
EFFERENT NEURONS
MOTOR NEURONS
CARRY INPULSES FROM THE CNS TO EFFECTORS THAT CAUSE RESPONSES IN THE MUSCLES AND GLANDS
INTERNEURONS
LOCATED IN THE CNS
CARRY BOTH SENSORY OR MOTOR IMPLUSES
OR CONNECT THEM
AND SUPPORT THINKING AND LEARNING
TYPES OF NEUROGLIA
OLIGODENDROCYTES
MICROGLIA
ASTROCYTES
EPENDYMA
TYPES OF NERVE TISSUE
NEURONS
NEUROGLIA
OLIGODENDROCYTES
FORM THE INSULATING SHEATH(COVERING) ON NEURONS IN THE CNS
MICROGLIA
MOVE SO THEY CAN LOCATE AND DESTROY DAMAGED TISSUE AND INVADING CELLS AND ORGANISMS
ASTROCYTES
PREVENT HARMFUL CHEMICALS FROM ENTERING THE BRAIN FROM CONTAMINATED BLOOD
EPENDYMA
LINE THE CAVITIES IN THE BRAIN AND HELP TO CIRCULATE CSF
CSF
CEREBRALSPINAL FLUID
THE TISSUE FLUID THAT CIRCULATES AROUND THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
LUBRICATES AND CUSHIONS
STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION
WHETHER THE MUSCLE TISSUE IS STRIATED OR SMOOTH(NONSTRAIATED)
STRAITED
LINED WITH GROOVES
LEVEL OF CONSCIOUS CONTROL
WHETHER THE MUSCLE IS VOLUNTARY OR INVOLUNTARY
VOLUNTARY
MUSCLES THAT ARE CONSCIOUSLY CONTROLLED BY THE WILL OF A PERSON

EX: MUSLCES MOVE AN ARM
INVOLUNTARY
MUSCLES THAT WORK AUTOMATICALLY

EX: HEART MUSCLES
FACTORS THAT DETERMINE MUSCLE TISSUE CLASSIFICATIONS
STRUCTURAL COMPOSTION
LEVEL OF CONSCIOUS CONTROL
LOCATION
LOCATION
WHETHER THE MUSCLE TISSUE IS SKELETAL, VISCERAL OR CARDIAC
SKELETAL
STRAITED
VOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE ATTATCHED TO BONES
VISCERAL
SMOOTH
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE THAT LINES THE WALLS OF HALLOW ORGANS
CARDIAC
STRIATED
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE TISSUE THAT COMPOSES THE WALLS OF THE HEART
FLEXION
DECREASES THE ANGLE OF A JOINT

MOVING YOUR HAND TOWARDS YOU PALM UP
EXTENSION
INCREASE THE ANGLE OF A JOINT

PALM UP MOVING ARM DOWN ALL THE WAY
AD-DUCTION
MOVE A LIMB TOWARDS THE MIDLINE
AB-DUCTION
MOVE LIMB AWAY FROM THE MIDLINE OF THE BODY
PRONATION
ROATATING MOVEMENT OF THE HAND SO THAT THE PALM FACES BACKWARDS OR DOWNWARDS
-ROTATING THE FOOT INWARD AND DOWNWARDS
SUPINATION
ROATATING HAND SO THE PALM FACES UPWARD OR FORWARD
-CORRESPONDING MOVEMENT OF THE LEG AND FOOT
DORSIFLEXION
MOVEMENT OF THE BODY TOWARDS THE BACK
TOES MOVING UPWARD
PLANTAR FLEXION
TOE DOWN MOVEMENT
ROTATION
ROTATING MOVEMENT ON A AXIS
NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY
THE RESPONSE OF MUSCLE TISSUE TO STIMULATION BY THE NERVOUS SYTEM
SENDING AN ELECTRICAL IMPLUSE TO SELECTED TISSUE
NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITABILITY RESPONSE AKA
SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY
EACH MUSCLE FIBER IS CONNECTED TO
THE MOTOR AXON OF A MOTOR NERVE
THE POINT WHERE THE NEURON TERMINATES ON A MUSCLE FIBER IS CALLED
NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION
ACETYLCHOLINE AKA
ACh
ACETYLCHOLINE
NEUROTRANSMITTER IN THE SAC IN THE END OF THE NERVE
THE SARCOLEMMA
MEMBRANE OF THE MUSCLE FIBER HAS RECEPTORS THAT ARE SENSATIVE TO ACh
DURING NORMAL RELAXED STATE THE OUTER MEMBRANE OF A MUSCLE FIBER IS
POSITIVLEY CHARGED DUE TO AN ABUNDANCE OF POSITIVE SODIUM IONS
DURING NORMAL RELAXED STATE THE CORE OF THE FIBER IS
NEGATIVELY CHARGED DUE TO AN ABUNDANCED OF NEGATIVE POTASSIUM IONS
NEGATIVE POTASSIUM IONS
K-
POSITIVE SODIUM IONS
Na+
A NERVE IMPULSE ARRIVING AT THE MOTOR AXON CAUSES
A RELEASE OF ACh
ACh BINDS TO THE RECEPTORS IN THE FIBER MEMBRANE, CASUING IT TO BECOMING
PERMEABLE TO SODIUM AND ALLOWING IONS TO MOVE FORWARD THE CORE OF THE FIBER
AN ARRANGEMENT OF FILAMENTS WITH THE MUSCLE FIBER
SHORTEN TO CONTRACT THE FIBER
SARCOMERE
Smallest functional unit of muscle tissue
PERMEABLE
CPABLE OF ALLOWING SUBSTANCES TO PENETRATE A STRUCTURE
FILAMENT
A THREADLIKE, FLEXABLE STRUCTURE
BECAUSE ALL THE FIBERS IN THE MUSCLE ARE UNDERGOING THE SAME NEUROMUSCULAR EXCITATION
THE ENTIRE MUSCLE CONTRACTS
AS LONG AS IMPLUSES CONTINUE, THE MUSCLE WILL REMAIN
CONTRACTED IN A CONDITION KNOWN AS TETANUS
WHEN THE NERVE IMPLUSES CEASE, THE SARCOLEMMA RELEASES
CHOLINESTERASE
WHICH INACTIVATES THE ACh
THE SODIUM IONS FLOW BACK TO THE SURFACE OF THE FIBER SO IT
RETURNS TO ITS NORMAL CHARGE STATE OF
POSTIVIE MEMBRANE
NEGATIVE CORE
MEMBRANE
THIN LAYER OF TISSUE THAT COVERS A SURFACE, LINES A CAVITIY OR DIVIDES A SPACE

MADE OF EPITHELIAL OR CONNECTIVE TISSUE
4 TYPES OF MEMBRANES
MUCCOUS MEMBRANE
SEROUS MEMBRANE
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE
MUCCOUS MEMBRANE
LINES CAVITIES AND PASSGAES THAT OPEN TO THE EXTERIOR

NASAL PASSGAE TO TRAP DIRT DUST POLLEN IS LINES WITH MUCCOUS MEMBRANES
SEROUS MEMBRANE
LINES THE CLOSED CAVITIES OF THE BODY
SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE
LINES THE SKELETAL JOINTS, TENDONS AND BURSAE
CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE
COVERS THE BODY AS SKIN
BURSAE
A SAC OF SYNOVIAL FLUID THAT HELPS TO REDUCE FRICTION BETWEEN A BONE AND A TENDON
3 LAYERS OF SKIN
EPIDERMIS
DERMIS
HYPODERMIS
EPIDERMIS
THE OUTER PAYER OF SKIN MADE UP OF AN OUTER,DEAD PORTION AND A DEEPER, LIVING, CELLULAR PORTION
DERMIS
THE INNER LAYER OF SKIN CONSISTING OF PAPILLARY AND RETICULAR LAYERS AND CONTAINING BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC VESSELS, NERVES AND NERVE ENDINGS, GLANDS AND HAIR FOLLICULES
HYPODERMIS
THE LAYER AREOLA TISSUE AND FAT THAT LIES BENEATH THE DERMIS
FUCNTION OF THE MUCCOUS MEMBRANE
FORMS A SELECTIVE FILTER THAT ALLOWS SOME SUBSTANCES TO ENTER THE BODY WHILE KEEPING OTHERS OUT

SECREATES MUCOUS TO KEEP ITS CELLS MOIST, TO LUBRICATE ITS SURFACES AND TRAP FOREIGN MATERIALS
FUNCTIONS OF SEROUS MEMBRANE
PROVIDES THE VISCERAL LAYER THAT COVERS ORGANS ENCLOSED IN CAVITIES
-PROVIDES THE PARIETAL LAYER THAT LINES CAVISITIES
-SECRETES SEROUS FLUID TO SERVE AS A LUBRICANT AND PAD BETWEEN VISCERAL AND PARIETAL LAYERS
FUNCTIONS OF CUTANEOUS MEMBRANE
SECREATES SWEAT AND WASTES TO HELP MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS
FUNCTIONS OF SYNOVIAL FLUID
SECREATES SYNOVIAL FLUID TO PROVIDE LUBRICATION AND MOISTURE
VISCERAL
OF OR PERTAINING TO THE VISCERA OR INTERNAL ORGANS IN THE ABDOMINAL CAVITIY
PARIETAL
OF OR PERTAINING TO THE OUTER WALL OF A CAVITIY OR ORGAN
ORGAN
A STRUCTURE CONSISTING OF 2 OR MORE TISSUES THAT PERFORM A SOECIFIC FUNSTION FOR THE BODY
WHAT TISSUE AND MEMBRANES ARE FOUND IN THE HEART
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUE
FIBORUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CARDIA MUSCLE TISSUE
SEROUS MEMBRANE
IN THE HEART THE SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL TISSUE FORM WHAT
THE ENDOCARDIUM
IN THE HEART THE FIBORUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE FORMS
THE FIBORUS PERICARDIUM
IN THE HEART THE CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE FORMS
THE MYOCARDIUM
IN THE HEART THE SEROUS MEMBRANE FORMS
THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM
ENDOCARDIUM
THE LINING OF THE HEART AND CHAMBERS
PERICARDIUM
A SAC THAT SURROUNDS THE HEART
MYOCARDIUM
THE THICK MIDDLE LAYER OF THE HEART WALL
TYPES OF TISSUE AND MEMBRANES FOUND IN THE STOMACH
FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
SMOOTH MUSCLE TISSUE
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
SEROUS MEMBRANE
IN THE STOMACH THE SEROUS MEMBRNAE FORMS
THE PERITONEUM
PERITONEUM
AN EXTENSIVE SEROUS MEMBRANE THAT COVERS THE ENTIRE ABDOMINAL WALL OF THE BODY
WHAT TISSUE AND MEMBRANE IS FOUND IN THE NERVES
NERVE TISSUE
WHAT TISSUE AND MEMBRANE IS FOUND IN THE BRAIN
NERVE TISSUE
WHAT TISSUE AND MEMBRANE IS FOUND IN THE LUNGS
ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE, EPITHELIAL TISSUE
ORGANS ARE COLLECTIONS OF TISSUE THAT ARE ORGANIZED IN
SUCH A WAY THAT THEY ARE ABLE TO PERFORM A SPECIFIC FUNCTION
OVERALL GOAL OF ORGANS IS TO
MAINTAIN A STATE OF HOMEOSTASIS
THE ORGANS HAVE FEEDBACK MECHANISMS THAT SEND SIGNALS TO THE
CNS ABOUT THE CONDITIONS THAT THEY MONITOR
THE CNS PROVIDES RESPONSE SIGNALS TO ORGANS IN ORDER TO
ACTUATE REGULATION MECHANISMS DESIGNED TO RETURN THE BODY TO HOMEOSTASIS
MANY OF THE RESPONSE MECHANISMS INVOLVE
PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL REACTIONS
ORGANS ARE ALSO INVOLVED IN THE TRANSPORT OF
MATERIALS THROUGHOUT THE BODY

EX: BLOOD CARRIES OXYGEN
DIGESTIVE CARRIES FOOD
MOST DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES IN ORGANS RESULT FROM
GENETIC DEFECTS OR HORMONAL DYSFUCNTIONS
APLASIA
A DEVELOPMENTAL FAILURE RESULTING IN THE ABSENCE OF AN ORGAN OR TISSUE
HYPOPLASIA
AN INCOMPLETE DEVELOPMENT OR UNDERDEVELOPMENT OF AN ORGAN OR TISSUE, WHICH IS USUALLY THE RESULT OF A DECREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS
ATROPHY
A WASTING OR DIMINUTION OF SIZE OR ACTIVITY OF A PART OF THE BODY, USUALLY THE RESULT OF AN ABNORMAL DECREASE IN CELL SIZE
HYPERTROPHY
AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF AN ORGAN CAUSED BY AN INCREASE IN THE SIZE OF THE CELLS RATHER THAN THE NUMBER OF CELLS
HYPERPLASIA
AN INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CELLS OF A BODY PART
DYSPLASIA
ANY ABNORMAL DEVELOPMENT OF TISSUE OR ORGANS
ANAPLASIA
A CHANGE IN THE STRUCTURE OR ORINETATION OF CELLS CHARACTERIZED BY THE PRODUCTION OF ABNORMAL, UNDIFFERENTIATED CELLS
ANAPLASIA IS CHARACTERISTIC OF A
MALIGNANCY
SURGICAL INCISION
THE SEPERATION OF INTACT TISSUE BY A SURGEON USING ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES
TRAUMATIC WOUND
AN INJURY TO LIVING BAODY TISSUE CAUSED BY AN EXTRINSIC AGENT (NOT A BODY PART)

EX CUTS, PUNCTURE, ABRASIONS
INCISION
A SMOOTH SIDED WOUND, ESPECIALLY ONE MADE DURING SURGERY
ASEPTIC
FREE FROM PATHOGENS
TRAUMA
AN INJURY TO LIVING TISSUE CAUSED BY AN EXTRINSIC AGENT
EXTRINSIC
OUTSIDE OF AND NOT PART OF THE BODY
CHEMICAL REACTION
AN INJURY TO BODY TISSUE THAT IS THE RESULT OF A RESPONSE OF THE BODY TO EXPOSURE TO A CHEMICAL
EXTERNAL CHECMICAL REACTION MAY LEAD TO
BURNS, RASHES, INTERRUPTIONS IN CHEMICAL PROCESSESS AND OTHER PROBLEMS
INTERNAL CHEMCIAL REACTIONS CAN LEAD TO
IMMIDIATE DEATH FROM TOXIN OR INTERFERENCE WITH CELL FUNCTIONINGS AS WITH THE CONSUMPTION OF ALCOHOL
EXTERNAL CHEMICALS CAN BE ABSORBED THROUGH
SKIN
EYES
MUCCOUS MEMBRANES AND OTHER PORTALS
FROSTBITE
LOCAL DAMAGE TO TISSUE AS A RESULT OF EXPOSURE TO LOW TEMPATURES
BACTERIAL INFECTION
THE DEATH OF CELLS AS A RESULT OF THE ACTION OF MICROORGANISMS
BURN
DAMAGE TO TISSUE DUE TO EXPOSURE TO A HIGH ENERGY SOURCE
EX:THERMAL,RADIATION,FRICTION
ABRASION
A WOUND CAUSED BY FRICTION BETWEEN THE TISSUE AND A MECHANICAL FOURCE
SCRAPE AKA
ABRASION
CONTUSION
A WOUND CAUSED BY A FORCE THAT DOES NOT BREAK THE SKIN BUT IS SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE DAMAGE TO SUBDERMAL TISSUES
BRUISE AKA
CONTUSION
SUBDERMAL
BELOW THE SKIN
AVULSION
A WOUND IN WHICH SKIN AND UNDERLYING TISSUE ARE PARTIALLY OR COMPLETELY TORN AWAY
INCISED WOUND
A WOUND WITH SMOOTH EDGES CAUSED BY A SHARP SURFACE
LACERATED WOUND
A WOUND WITH IRREGULAR EDGES
PUNCTURE WOUND
A WOUND WITH LITTLE SURFACE AREA THAT HAS BEEN MADE BY A SHARP, SLENDER OBJECT
PERFORATED WOUND
A WOUND CAUSED BY AN OBJECT PASSING COMPLETELY THROUGH THE BODY OR A PORTION OF THE BODY
CRUSH WOUND
A WOUND THAT IS CAUSED BY PRESSURE THAT IS SUFFICIENT TO ALTER OR DESTROY TISSUE STRUCTURE

MAY CAUSE SKIN TO RUPTURE,BREAK BONES,BURST BLOOD VESSELS, OR RUPTURE AND DIPLACE CELLS
RUBOR
IMMEDIATELY UPON THE OCCURANCE OF AN INSULT TO A SITE, THE BLOOD VESSELS IN THAT AREA CONSTRICTS AND THEN DIALATE, ALLOWING BLOOD TO POOL IN THE AREA AS THE VESSELS FILL AND BLOODIS UNABLE TO FLOW QUICKLY THROUGH THE UNDIALATED VESSELS BEYOND THE INJURED AREA
HEAT
WHITE BLOOD CELLS BEGIN TO ACCUMULATE IN THE INJURY, ATTATCHING TO THE BLOOD CELL VESSEL WALLS AND LEADING THE RELEASE STORED WHITE BLOOD CELLS. THE WHT BLOOD CELLS BEGIN TO PASS THROUGH THE WALLS OF THE BLOOD VESSELS TO FILL THE INTERSTITIAL SPACES, ATTRACTED BY CHEMICALS SUCH AS KININS RELEASED BY THE INJURED TISSUES. THE PURPOSE OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS ID TO ATTACK PATHOGENS THAT MAY HAVE ENTERED THE WOUND, THEY ALSO FILL THE ARA WITH CONCENTRATED WARMTH
PROCESS OF INFLAMMATION
RUBOR
HEAT
SWELLING
PAIN
RUBOR
REDNESS
KININ
A POLYPEPTIDE HORMONE THAT FORMS IN THE TISSUE AND HAS ITS CHEIF EFFECT ON SMOOTH MUSCLE
SWELLING
AS WHITE BLOOD CELLS, CHEMICALS, FLUIDS THAT LEAK FROM DAMAGED BLOOD VESSELS AND CELLS AND OTHER INFLAMMATORY EXCUDATE ENTER THE INTESTITIAL AREAS, THE INJURY SITE BEGINS TO BULDGE. CERTAIN PROTEINS IN THE INTESTITIAL SOLUTION TRANSFORMS INTO FIBRIN TO FORM CLOTS THAT SELA THE AREA. THIS HELPS TO ISOLATE THE SITE SO THAT PATHOGENS ARE CONTAINED AND INFECTION IS MORE EASILY PREVENTED. THIS ACCUMULATION OF BODY FLUID IS REFFERED TO AS EDEMA
FIBRIN
A STRINGY, INSOLUBLE PROTEIN PRODUCED IN THE CLOTTING PROCESS
PAIN
THE INFLAMMATORY EXCUDATE, ESPECIALLY THE CHEMICALS RELEASED BY THE INJURED CELLS, RSULT IN PAIN. THE PAIN MAY HELP TO PROTECT THE SITE BY TELLING THE ORGANISM TO GIVE IT ATTENTION AND TO BE CAREFUL WITH IT
PHASES OF HEALING
LAG
HEALING
MATURATION
LAG PHASE
EXUDATE CONTAING BLOOD,LYMPH AND FIBRINOGEN BEGINS CLOTTING AND LOOSELY BINDS THE CUT EDGES TOGETHER

FIBRIN, CLOTTING BLOOD, AND SERUM PROTEIN DRY OUT, FORMING A SCAB TO SEAL THE WOUND

LEUKOCYTES REMOVE BACTERIA AND DAMGED TISSUE DEBRIS
FIBRINOGEN
A PROTEIN PRODUCED BY THE LIVER THAT IS CONVERTED INTO FIBRIN BY THROMBIN TO PROMOTE CLOTTING AT AN INJURY SITE
LEUKOCYTE
WHITE BLOOD CELL
HEALING PHASE
FIBROBLASTS MULTIPLY RAPIDLY TO BRIDGE THE WOUND GAP, SECRETING FIBER FORMING COLLAGEN

TENSILE STRENGTH GROWS RAPIDLY AS THE COLLAGEN NETWORK OF FIBERS BUILD

NEW CELLS FORM TO REPLACE CELLS THAT WERE DAMAGED BY THE INJURY
FIBROBLAST
CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELL THAT PRODUCES COLLAGEN AND ELASTIN FIBERS
COLLAGEN
A PROTEIN THAT COMPOSES STRONG FIBERS IN SEVERAL TYPES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE
TENSILE STRENGTH
A MATERIALS RESISTANCE TO BEING TORN APART BY OPPOSING FORCES
MATURATON PHASE (REMODELING PHASE)
SCAR TISSUE FORMS
THE COLLAGEN REFORMS INTO CROSS LINKS THAT FURTHER INCREASE TENSILE STRENGTH

AS COLLAGEN DENSITY INCREASES, THE VASCULAR MAKEUP OF THE SITE DECREASES. REDUCING BLOOD FLOW IN THE AREA SO THAT THE COLOR OF THE SITE BECOMES CLOSER TO NORMAL
SCAR
A MARK LEFT ON THE SKIN AS A RESULT OF AN INJURY
APPROXIMATE
TO BRING 2 TISSUE SURFACES CLSOE TOGTHER, AS IN THE REPAIR OF A WOUND
GRANULATION TISSUE
ANY SOFT, PINK, FLESHY PROJECTION THAT FORM DURING THE HEALING PROCESS IN A WOUND NOT HEALING BY FIRST INTENTION


CONSISTS OF MANY CAPILLARIES SURROUNDED BY FIBORUS COLLAGEN
FIRST INTENTION TREATMENT
CLOSED WITH SUTURE RIGHT AFTER
NO POST-OP SWELLLING
NO SEROUS DISCHARGE OR INFECTION
MINIMAL SEPERATION OF EDGES
MINIMAL SCAR FORMATION
HEALING BY PRIMARY UNION
HEALING IS RELATIVELY FAST
SUTURE
A STITCH PLACED IN TISSUE TO HOLD THE SIDES OF A WOUND TOGETHER DURING THE HEALING PROCESS
OOZE FROM A WOUND CONSISTS OF
WATERY DISCHARGE, WHITE BLOOD CELLS, DEAD CELLS AND FRAGMENTS OF PATHOGENS
PRIMARY UNION
THE SITUATION IN WHICH SEVERED TISSUE IS ESSENTIALLY REUNITED WITH THE TISSUE FROM WHICH IT WAS ORIGINALLY SEPERATED AND THAT THE HEALING PROCESS BEGINS WITHOUT DISRUPTIONS FROM SWELLING,CONTAMINATION, INFECTION AND OTHER FECTORS
SECOND INTENTION TREATMENT
WOUND NOT CLOSED WITH A SUTURE
EXCESSIVE LOSS OF TISSUE
POORLY APPROXIMATED TISSUE
SEROUS DISCHARGE AND INFECTION
EXCESSIVE SEPERATION OF EDGES
SIGNIFICANT SCAR FORMATION
(( HEALING MAY PRODUCE A WEAK UNION WITH GRNULATION TISSUE FORMING IN THE BOTTOM OF THE WOUND AND SLOWLY CONTRACTING THE WOUND TOGETHER AS IT BUILDS UP)
HEALING TAKES LONGER THAN NORMAL
THIRD INTENTION TREATMENT ( DELAYED HEALING)
CLOSED WITH SUTURE BUT NOT RIGHT AWAY
LOSS OF TISSUE FROM INFECTION OR COMPLICATION
SEROUS DISCHARGE AND INFECTION
--EXCESSIVE SEPERATION OF EDGES DUE TO DISRUPTION IN HEALING
DEEPR AND WIDER SCAR
WEAK UNION SOME GRANULATION
HEALING TAKES LONGER THEN NORMAL
FACTORS THAT AFFECT HEALING
AGE
NUTRITION STATUS
ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
PHYSICAL CONDITION
SURG TECHNIQUE
INFECTION
THERAPY
COMPLICATIONS
EXCERCISE
VITALITY
THE ABILITY TO CARRY OUT LIFE FUNCTIONS EFFECIENTLY
NUTRITIONAL NUTRIENTS NEEDED FOR PROPER HEALING
VITAMINS A B C
PROTEIN
ZINC
CARBS
HEMORRHAGE
THE LOSS OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF BLOOD IN A SHORT TIME CAUSED BY A FAILURE OF OPEN BLOOD VESSELS TO ADEQUATELY CLOTOR TO REMAIN SEALED

LOSS OF BLOOD REDUCES THE AMOUNT OF OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS
CLOTTING IS IMPORTANT TO HEALING BEAUSE IT
HELPS SEAL THE WOUND
BUT HEMOPHILLIA AND ANEMIA MAY PREVENT THE BLOOD FROM CLOTTING
SINUS TRACT FORMATION
THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHANNELS THAT PERMIT THE ESCAPE OF PURULENT MATERIALS FROM POCKETS OF PUS AND OTHER FLUIDS
WOUND DISRUPTION
ONE OF THE CONDITIONS-DEHISCENCE, EVISCERATION OR EVENTRATION-THAT INTERRUPTS THE WOUND HEALING PROCESS
DURING THE POST 4TH TO 6TH DAY THESE CAN OCCUR . POOR SURGICAL TECHNIQUE
DEHISCENCE
THE SEPERATION OF THE LAYERS OF A SURGICAL WOUND
EVISCERATION
THE EXTRUSION OF INTERNAL ORGANS OR VISCERA THROUGH A DEHISCENCE
EVENTRATION
THE PARTIAL PROTRUSION OF THE ABDOMINAL CONTENTS THROUGH AN OPENING IN THE AB WALL
CLASS 1
1 TO 5% INFECTION RATE
DONE BY CHOICE UNDER IDEAL CONDITIONS
PRIMARY CLOSURE WITH NO DRAINAGE
NO BREAKS IN ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
NO INFLAMMATION
NO ENTRY TO DIRTY AREAS
DIRTY AREAS
ALIMENTRY
GENITOURINARY
RESPIRATORY
OROPHARYNGEAL
CLEAN/CONTAMINATED (CLASS2)
8 TO 11% INFECTION RATE
PROCEDURE UNDER NEAR IDEAL CONDITIONS
NORMAL DRAINAGE
MINOR BREAKS IN ASEPTIC TECHNIQUE
NO INFLAMMATION
ENTRY TO DIRTY AREAS UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS
CONTAMINATED (CLASS3)
15 TO 20% INFECTION RATE
LESS THAN IDEAL CONDITIONS
OPEN FRESH TRAUMATIC WOUND
LESS THAN 4 HOURS OLD
MAJOR BREAKS IN ASPETIC TECH.
SHOWS ACUTE NON PURULENT INFLAMMATION
-ENTRY INTO AREA WITH GROSS SPILAGE OR SMILIAR
INFECTED (CLASS4)
27 TO 40% INFECTION RATE
LESS THAN IDEAL CONDITIONS
PRIMARY CLOSURE NO DRAINAGE
MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION B4 PROCEDURE
ACUTE BACTERIAL INFLAMMATION MYHV PUS
INVOLVED EXPOSURE TO A PERFORATED ORGAN, SUCH AS A BOWEL
PERFORATED ORGAN
AN ORGAN PUNCTURED IN SUCH A WAY THAT THE CONTENTS OF THE ORGAN COULD EXUDE ONTO OTHER STRUCTURES