18 terms

18-19 UIL Social Studies Speeches and Movements

The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments (1848)
a declaration written at the first women's rights convention that stated "all men and women are created equal"; it also listed many items that the signers believed were injustices perpetrated by "man" towards women
More information here: http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/seneca.html
Ain't I A Woman?, Sojourner Truth (1851)
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883): Ain't I A Woman?
Delivered 1851
Women's Convention, Akron, Ohio
More information here:
The Crisis, Carrie Chapman Catt (1916)
The Crisis - Sept. 7, 1916
Carrie Chapman Catt
September 07, 1916— Atlantic City, New Jersey
At the convention, members debated whether the NAWSA should concentrate on a federal amendment or on state legislation, or continue to work for both, with a goal of determining a course of action before the national presidential election.
More information here:
Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of
Central High School, Dwight D. Eisenhower
President Dwight D. Eisenhower took action against defiant governor, Orval faubus, by simultaneously federalizing the Arkansas National Guard, removing the Guard from Faubus' control, and ordering one thousand troops from the United States Army 101st Airborne Division in Ft. Campbell, Kentucky to oversee the integration. On September 25, 1957 the students, now known as the Little Rock Nine, entered Central High School, an academically renowned school.
More information here:
Radio and Television Report to the American
People on Civil Rights, John F. Kennedy
In his speech the President responds to the threats of violence and obstruction on the University of Alabama campus following desegregation attempts, explaining that the United States was founded on the principle that all men are created equal and thus, all American students are entitled to attend public educational institutions, regardless of race. He also discusses how discrimination affects education, public safety, and international relations, noting that the country cannot preach freedom internationally while ignoring it domestically. The President asks Congress to enact legislation protecting all Americans' voting rights, legal standing, educational opportunities, and access to public facilities, but recognizes that legislation alone cannot solve the country's problems concerning race relations.
More information (video clip) here:
The Ballot or the Bullet, Malcolm X (1964)
In the spring of 1964, when Malcolm X gave his "Ballot or the Bullet" speech, he was regarded by a majority of white Americans as a menacing character. Malcolm X never directly called for violent revolution, but he warned that African Americans would use "any means necessary" - especially armed self defense - once they realized just how pervasive and hopelessly entrenched white racism had become.
More Information here (audio clip available):
Testimony Before the Credentials Committee,
Fannie Lou Hamer (1964)
Testimony regarding this incident: Returning home from a Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) training workshop in June 1963, Hamer's bus was intercepted by policemen. She and two others were taken to jail in Winona, Mississippi, and mercilessly beaten. Hamer suffered permanent damage to her kidneys.
More information here (audio clip):
The Civil Rights Movement: Fraud, Sham and
Hoax, George Wallace (1964)
George C. Wallace, the Governor of Alabama, had become the national symbol of opposition to the civil rights movement and to federal governmental intervention to protect the rights of African Americans. In the address below he denounces President Lyndon B. Johnson for signing into law the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
More information here:
We Shall Overcome, Lyndon B. Johnson
In this eloquent speech to the full Congress, President Lyndon B. Johnson used the phrase "we shall overcome," borrowed from African American leaders struggling for equal rights.

The speech was made on Monday, March 15, 1965, a week after deadly racial violence had erupted in Selma, Alabama, as African Americans were attacked by police while preparing to march to Montgomery to protest voting rights discrimination.
More information here:
Letter from a Birmingham Jail, Martin Luther
King (1965)
On April 6, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote this letter from the Birmingham jail, where he was imprisoned for leading nonviolent demonstrations against segregation, The letter was written long-hand, drawing on his extensive knowledge of philosophy and theology. It was his response to a public statement of concern issued by eight white religious leaders of the South.
More information here:
Black Power, Stokely Carmichael (1966)
Soon after he was named chairman of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Stokely Carmichael began to tout the slogan and philosophy of Black Power. In this speech, he explains Black Power to an audience at the University of California, Berkeley.
More information here:
I've Been to the Mountaintop, Martin Luther
King, Jr. (1968)
On April 3, 1968, the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his final public speech. In a crowded church in Memphis, Tenn., King spoke of the injustice felt by the city's sanitation workers, who were on strike protesting low pay and poor working conditions. It also seemed to touch on his death that would take place a few hours later.
More information here (audio clip):
MLK Assassination Speech, Robert F.
Kennedy (1968)
Senator Robert F. Kennedy climbed onto the back of a flatbed truck to deliver the news to a largely African-American crowd in Indianapolis that the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had been assassinated. He would be assasinated later that year. Robert F. Kennedy was running for president.
More information here (audio clip link):
I Am For the Equal Rights Amendment,
Shirley Chisholm (1970)
Being the first African American woman elected to Congress in 1968 and the first African American woman to run for president in 1972, it was very clear that Chisholm was determined to change this country's outlook on equal rights.
More information here:
Living the Revolution, Gloria Steinem
Steinem breaks with the rhetorical tradition of graduation speeches by urging action rather than celebration. Instead of praising the learning that graduation commemorates, Steinem urges an "unlearning" by refuting several myths about women, several of which are grounded in academic coursework or studies.
For more information:
What's Wrong with 'Equal Rights' for Women?,Phyllis Schlafly (1972)
When Schlafly first wrote the speech, the ERA had been passed by Congress and the idea of women's rights was gaining mainstream acceptance. But Schlafly delivered a very different--and attention-grabbing--message: "The truth is that American women never had it so good," she declared. "Why should we lower ourselves to 'equal rights' when we already have the status of special privilege?"
For more information:
Nomination Address for Governor Jerry Brown, Cesar Chavez (1976)
Throughout his career, Chavez considered public speaking important, both for organizing and mobilizing the poor and downtrodden and for giving them a voice. This speech, although delivered at a major political convention, includes many of the themes of Chavez's advocacy as a leader of the farms workers' movement, including the need for the government to protect and provide opportunities for working Americans.
This speech provides an avenue for exploring the themes and goals of nomination addresses. Chavez violated many of the expectations for that type of speech, using this opportunity to present his message about the plight of the poor rather than sing the praises of the man he was nominating for president, Jerry Brown.
For information:
You've Got to Have Hope, Harvey Milk (1977)
In 1977, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors, Harvey Milk became the first openly gay elected official in the United States. Never hiding his sexuality, Milk was the most outspoken and well-known of the first generation of out gay and lesbian politicians. Milk's political activism graw directly out of his commitment to the gay community and his success came not just from the gays and lesbians in his Castro neighborhood, but also from heterosexual working people in other parts of his district who saw his commitment to improving their lives.
In 1978, Harvey Milk and George Moscone, then mayor of San Francisco, were assassinated by Dan White, a former policeman and political opponent. At the trial, White's attorney offered the "Twinkie defense," arguing that White suffered diminished capacity from over consumption of junk food and was therefore not responsible for his actions. Though charged with first-degree murder, Dan White was found guilty of voluntary manslaughter on both counts. His virtual acquittal sparked riots by gays and lesbians in San Francisco and demonstrations across the country.
For information: