43 terms

American History - c. 8

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Muckraker
a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society
Jane Addams
Leading figure of the settlement house movement. Founded Hull House.
Jacob Riis
Reporter/muckraker who photographed tenement buildings in order to expose the terrible living conditions for poor immigrants.
Direct primary
Election in which voters choose party nominees for upcoming elections.
Referendum
a legislative act (law) is approved or rejected by the people.
settlment house
neighborhood centers in poor areas that offered education, recreation, and social activities
Social Gospel
A movement which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means to build a better society. Blended ideas of German socialism and American progressivism.
Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
Revealed the unsanitary working conditions and nature of the meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906).
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
March 1911 fire in New York factory; led to the establishment of many factory reforms, including increasing safety precautions for workers and workers' compensation laws.
political machine
A corrupt political organization built by powerful politicians - they became a target of progressive reformers.
Temperance Movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
Suffrage
the right to vote
Nineteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment adopted in 1920 that guarantees women the right to vote.
Florence Kelley
Formed the Women's Trade Union League. She pushed for laws that would benefit women working in factories.
NCL (National Consumers League)
Group that investigated and identified products made under healthful working conditions for women. Encouraged women to buy these products.
Alice Paul
Founder of the National Woman's Party, used public protest to demand the right to vote for woman.
Ida B. Wells
African-American journalist who founded the National Association of Colored Women and led the movement to ban lynching.
Muller v. Oregon
1908
Supreme Court decision that upheld a law that limited work hours for women.
Americanization movement
Education program designed to help immigrants assimilate to American culture.
Booker T. Washington
African American activist, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
W.E.B. DuBois
Opposed Booker T. Washington. African American activist who wanted immediate social and political integration. Founder of the Niagara Movement which led to the creation of the NAACP.
Niagra Movement
African American activist group that denounced the idea of gradual integration.
Urban League
Network of churches and clubs that set up employment agencies and relief efforts to help African Americans get settled and find work in the cities.
Mutualistas
Groups of Mexican Americans that make loans and provide legal assistance to other members of their community.
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Organization founded after the 1908 Springfield riot. Aim was to abolish segregation and discrimination and achieve political/civil rights for African Americans.
Anti-Defamation League
Formed in 1913 to defend Jews against physical and verbal attacks.
Theodore Roosevelt
Became President after the assassination of William McKinley. Known for the "Square Deal", trust-busting, and supporting big corporations that did business fairly.
Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all. Protected the interests of small business owners and the poor.
Meat Inspection Act
Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
Pure Food and Drug Act
Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling.
John Muir
Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park.
Hepburn Act
Law that gave the government the authority to set and limit shipping rates.
Progressive Party
Political party that emerged from the Taft-Roosevelt battle that split the Republican Party. T. Roosevelt ran under this party for the Presidential election of 1912.
"Rational Use" conservation
Gifford Pinchot and Teddy Roosevelt believed that forests should be preserved the forests for public use.
National Reclamation Act
1902 law that gave the federal government the power to decide where and how water would be distributed through the building and management of dams and irrigation projects.
William H. Taft
President from 1909-1913. Republican candidate in the election of 1912. Under his administration the government filed many antitrust lawsuits against corporations.
Woodrow Wilson
Won the Presidential election of 1912 (Democrat). Known for the Federal Reserve Act, Clayton Antitrust Act, and sending federal troops to break the Ludlow Miner's strike.
Sixteenth Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that gave Congress the power to create a national income tax.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 act designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; it identified previous business practices that would now be illegal.
Federal Reserve Act
This act created the Federal System, which was made up of 12 (regional) federal reserve banks that were regulated by a single Federal Reserve board. This allowed central government authority over all banks.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's plan for government of the U.S. which included revision of antitrust practices, tariff policy, and banking and currency matters.
FTC (Federal Trade Commission)
Consumer protection agency established to monitor business practices. Factored into attempts by the government to curb the power of monopolies.
Adamson Act
1916 law that established 8 hour workday for railroad workers in order to avert a national strike.