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Wheeler Final 10 2nd
Terms in this set (63)
Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between thinking and language?
People sometimes think in images rather than in words.
The text defines cognition as:
mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information.
A mental grouping of similar things, events, or people is called a(n):
When forming a concept, people often develop a best example, or ________, of a category.
Complete the following analogy: Rose is to flower as:
prototype is to concept.
Dr. Mendoza is studying the mental strategies people use when solving problems. Dr. Mendoza is clearly a(n):
The basic units of cognition are:
If you want to be absolutely certain that you will find the solution to a problem you know is solvable, you should use:
A dessert recipe that gives you the ingredients, their amounts, and the steps to follow is an example of a(n):
Which of the following is an example of the use of heuristics?
playing chess using a defensive strategy that has often been successful for you
Experts in a field prefer heuristics to algorithms because heuristics:
often save time.
Boris the chess master selects his next move by considering moves that would threaten his opponent's queen. His opponent, a chess-playing computer, selects its next move by considering all possible moves. Boris is using a(n) ________ and the computer is using a(n)
During a televised political debate, the Republican and Democratic candidates each argued that the results of a recent public opinion poll supported their party's platform regarding sexual harassment. Because both candidates saw the information as supporting their belief, it is clear that both were victims of:
Confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:
look for information that is consistent with one's beliefs.
Mental set and functional fixedness are two types of:
Failing to see that an article of clothing can be inflated as a life preserver is an example of:
Failing to solve a problem that requires using an object in an unusual way illustrates the phenomenon of:
Marilyn was asked to solve a series of five math problems. The first four problems could only be solved by a particular sequence of operations. The fifth problem could also be solved following this sequence; however, a much simpler solution was possible. Marilyn did not realize this simpler solution and solved the problem in the way she had solved the first four. Her problem-solving strategy was hampered by:
Rudy is 6 feet 6 inches tall, weighs 210 pounds, and is very muscular. If you think that Rudy is more likely to be a basketball player than a computer programmer, you are a victim of:
the representativeness heuristic.
You hear that one of the Smith children is an outstanding Little League player and immediately conclude it's their one son rather than any of their four daughters. You reached your quite possibly erroneous conclusion as the result of:
the representativeness heuristic.
Representativeness and availability are examples of:
Airline reservations typically decline after a highly publicized airplane crash because people overestimate the incidence of such disasters. In such instances, people's decisions are being influenced by:
the availability heuristic.
Your stand on an issue such as the use of nuclear power for electricity involves personal judgment. In such a case, one memorable occurrence can weigh more heavily than a bookful of data, thus illustrating:
the availability heuristic.
Assume that Congress is considering revising its approach to welfare and to this end is hearing a range of testimony. A member of Congress who uses the availability heuristic would be most likely to:
base his or her ideas on the most vivid, memorable testimony given, even though many of the statistics presented run counter to this testimony.
Most people tend to:
overestimate the accuracy of their knowledge and judgments.
In relation to ground beef, consumers respond more positively to an ad describing it as "75 percent lean" than to one referring to its "25 percent fat" content. This is an example of:
the framing effect.
A common problem in everyday reasoning is our tendency to:
accept as logical those conclusions that agree with our own opinions.
Which of the following illustrates belief perseverance?
Your belief remains intact even in the face of evidence to the contrary.
Which of the following describes artificial intelligence?
the science that explores human thought by attempting to model it on the computer
Because of their lightning speed, computers can retrieve and manipulate stored data faster than people can, but the human brain beats the computer hands down when it comes to:
Neural network computers:
can do all of the above. (can be programmed to mimic excitatory and inhibitory neural messages, have a greater capacity than conventional computers to learn from experience, are not limited to serial processing.)
Phonemes are the basic units of ________ in language.
The English language has approximately ________ phonemes.
The word "predates" contains ________ phonemes and ________ morphemes.
Complete the following: -ed is to sh as ________ is to ________.
A listener hearing a recording of Japanese, Spanish, and North American children babbling would:
not be able to tell them apart.
The rules most directly involved in permitting a person to derive meaning from words and sentences are rules of:
The sentence "Blue jeans wear false smiles" has correct ________ but incorrect ________.
Syntax refers to the:
rules for grouping words into sentences.
Which of the following is not true of babbling?
It is imitation of adult speech.
One reason an English-speaking adult may have difficulty pronouncing Russian words is that:
after the babbling stage, a child who hears only English stops uttering other phonemes.
The child who says "Milk gone" is engaging in ________. This type of utterance demonstrates that children are actively experimenting with the rules of ________.
telegraphic speech; syntax
Telegraphic speech is typical of the ________ stage.
Children first demonstrate a rudimentary understanding of syntax during the ________ stage.
Skinner and other behaviorists have argued that language development is the result of:
all of the above. (imitation, reinforcement, association)
Which of the following best describes Chomsky's view of language development?
Humans have a biological predisposition to acquire language.
Which of the following is not cited by Chomsky as evidence that language acquisition cannot be explained by learning alone?
Children raised in isolation from language spontaneously begin speaking words.
In preparing her class presentation, "Updating Chomsky's Understanding of Language Development," Britney's outline includes all of the following evidence except that:
infants can recognize color differences even before they can name different colors.
Which of the following utterances is an example of overgeneralization of a grammatical rule?
"We goed to the store."
The study in which people who immigrated to the United States at various ages were compared in terms of their ability to understand English grammar found that:
those who immigrated as children understood grammar as well as native speakers.
Deaf children who are not exposed to sign language until they are teenagers:
never become as fluent as those who learned to sign at a younger age.
According to the text, language acquisition is best described as:
an interaction between biology and experience.
Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis states that:
our language shapes our thinking.
The linguistic relativity hypothesis is challenged by the finding that:
people with no word for a certain color can still perceive that color accurately.
Several studies have indicated that the generic pronoun "he":
tends for both children and adults to trigger images of males but not females.
Regarding the relationship between thinking and language, which of the following most accurately reflects the position taken in the text?
Thinking affects our language, which then affects our thought.
Researchers who are convinced that animals can think point to evidence that:
all of the above occur. (monkeys demonstrate the ability to "count" by learning to touch pictures of objects in ascending numerical order, chimpanzees regularly use branches, stones, and other objects as tools in their natural habitats, chimps invent grooming and courtship customs and pass them on to their peers.)
Researchers who believe that some primates possess a rudimentary theory of mind point to evidence that:
chimpanzees have been observed using mirrors to inspect themselves.
The chimpanzee Sultan used a short stick to pull a longer stick that was out of reach into his cage. He then used the longer stick to reach a piece of fruit. Researchers hypothesized that Sultan's discovery of the solution to his problem was the result of:
Biologist Karl von Frisch won the Nobel prize for his discovery that honeybees communicate with each other by:
performing an intricate dance.
Researchers taught the chimpanzee Washoe and the gorilla Koko to communicate by using:
Which of the following has been argued by critics of ape language research?
All of the above have been argued. (Ape language is merely imitation of the trainer's behavior, There is little evidence that apes can equal even a 3-year-old's ability to order words with proper syntax, By seeing what they wish to see, trainers attribute greater linguistic ability to apes than actually exists.)
Many psychologists are skeptical of claims that chimpanzees can acquire language because the chimps have not shown the ability to:
use syntax in communicating.
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