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50 terms

pschology sensation and perception

STUDY
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sensation is to ___ as perception is to ____
detection; interpretation
Hearing a sequence of sounds of differnet piches is to ___ as recognizing the sound sequence as a familiar melody is to ____
sensation; perception
Patients' negative expectations about the outcome of a surgical procedure can increase their postoperative experience of pain. THis best illustrates the importance of:
top-down processing
Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower ____ for skunk odor than his parents have.
absolute threshold
THe process by which we selct, organize, and interpret sensory information in order to recognize meaningful objects and events is called
perception
A subliminal message is one that is presented
below one's absolute threshold for awareness
Some people are better than others at detecting slight varaitions in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of
difference threshold
if the just-noticable difference for a 10-ounce weight is 1 ounce, the just noticeable difference for an 80-ounce weight would be ____ ounces
8
the process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called
transduction
accommodation refers to the
process by which the lens changes shape in order to focus images on the retina.
the adjustable opening in the center o the eye is the
pupil
diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as
sensory adaptation
after listening to your high-volume car stero for 15 minutes you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates
sensory adaptation
the area of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
blind spot
the ability to simultaneoulsy process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates
parallel processing
evidence that some cones are especially senstive to red light, toher to green light, and still others to blue light is most directly sipportive of the ____ theory
Young- Heimholtz
experiencing a reen afterimage ofa red object is most easily explained by
the opponent-process theory
the retina is to the eye as the ____ is to the ear
cochlea
the coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the
cochlea
If jared watches a nurse give him an injection, he experiences more pain than if he closes his eyes during the procedure and thinks about his favorite food. This illustrates the value of ____ for pain control.
distraction
during the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severly affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. this illustrates the importance of
sensory adaptation
with her eyes closed and her nose plugged, chandra was unable to taste the difference between an onion and a pear. her experience best illustrates the importance of
sensory interaction
kinesthesis regers to the
system for sensing the position and movement of muscles, tendons, and joints.
which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride?
semicircular canals
felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend's good looks that he failed to pereive any of her less admirable charactersitics, this best illustrates the dangers of
selective attention
the ability to pay attention to only one voice at a time is called
the cocktail party effect
while a student provided directions to a construction worker, two experiements rudely interuppted by passing between them carrying a door. the students failure to notice that the construction worker was replaced by a differnet person during this interruption illustrates
change blindness
when there is a conflict between bits of information received by two or more sense, which sense tends to fominate the otehrs?
vision
a gestalt is best described as an
organized whole
who emphasized that the whole may exceed the sum of its parts?
gestalt psychologists
people are more likely to perceive a figure and ground illustration as reversible if they are told it is reversible. this best illustrates the importnace of
top-down processing
figure is to ground as ____ is to ____
a white cloud; blue sky
the principle of connectedness would most likely lead you to perceive all the ____ as parts of a single unit
rungs in a ladder
the tendency to see all the individual spokes in a bicycle wheel as part of a larger single unit best illustrates the principle of
connectedness
the organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions is caled
depth perception
the visial cliff is a labratory device for testing ____ in infants
depth perception
holding two index fingers in front of the eyes can cretae the perception of a floating finger sausage. this best illusrates teh effect of
retinal disparity
which of the following is a binocular cue for the perception of distance?
convergence
which of the following is a cue used by artists to convey depth on a flat canvas?
interpostion
distant rees were located closer to the top of the artist's canvas than were the nearvy flowers. the artists was clearly using the distance cue known as
relative height
as the farmer looked across her field, the parallel rows of young corn plants appeared to converge in the distance. this provided her iwth a distance cue known as
linear perspective
the sequentially flashing christmas tree lights appeared to generate pulsating waves of motion. this best illustrates
the phi phenomenon
although college textbooks frequently cast a trapezoid image on the retina, students typically perceive the books as rectangular objects. this illustrates the importance of
shape constancy
as sherod walked away from the camera, the image of his body filled a smaller area of the television screen. Nevertheless, viewers did not perceive Sherod as suddently shrinking. This illustrates
size constancy
john locke is to immanuel kant as ___ is to ____
nurture; nature
although he was wearing a piar of glasses that shifted the apparent location of objects 20 degrees to his right, lars was still able to play tennis very effectively. this best illustrates teh value of
perceptual adaptation
in 1972, many people readily perceieved photographs of a floating tree trunk as a partially submerged loch ness monster, the text mentions this in order to illustrate the powerful influnce of
perceptual set
schemas are best described as
concepts that organize sensory input
the influence of schemas on our interpreations of ambigious sensations best illustrates
top-down processing
although sue yen sees her chemistry professor several times a week she didn't recognize the professor when she saw her in the grocery store. this best illustrates the importance of
context effects