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Terms in this set (53)
Floods, droughts, and famines (summary)
There is typically heavy rainfall in Kenya during April and May because they are located near the equator. After they rain down in Kenya they move north with the sun. However in 2003 they didn't and they stayed raining down over Kenya causing rain and drought and devastating consequences
Average weather in a region over long time period (30 years)
The layer closest to Earths surface. Weather takes place here
Contains the ozone layer. Blocks UV radiation
The product of solar radiation energizing the gases of the thermosphere in both hemispheres
Differential heating of earth
Tropical regions near the equator receive more solar energy than mid-latitude and polar regions, where the Sun's rays strike Earth's surface at an oblique angle.
Percent of suns energy that is reflected
Properties of air
Density, water vapor capacity, adiabatic heating or cooling, and latent heat release
The maximum amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temperature
Rising air expands - cools
Sinking air contracts - warms
Latent heat release
Water vapor condenses into liquid. Energy is released
Equator to 30 degrees north and south
Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)
Most intense sunlight. Equatorial. Dense clouds, heavy rainfall
Air currents above 60 degrees North and South
Speed of earths rotation and latitude
Because all locations on earth complete one revolution every 24 hours, because earth has a greater circumference near the equator the near the poles, it's speed of rotation is much faster the equator the near the poles.
Deflection of direction of an objects path due to earths rotation
Prevailing wind patterns
produced by a combination of atmospheric convection currents and the Coriolis effect
• Caused by the tilt of the Earth on its axis
• Hemisphere with most direct sunlight- summer.
• Hemisphere with indirect sunlight- winter.
Oceanic circulation patterns
the result of differential heating, gravity, prevailing winds, the Coriolis effect, and the locations of continents
Large scale water circulation patterns due to wind, Coriolis effect, and continents
Deeper waters rises and replace surface water. Brings nutrients from deeper ocean water
Mixing of surface water and deep water. Distributes heat and nutrients
El Niño southern oscillation (enso)
Periodic reversal of the trade winds and surface currents in tropical Pacific Ocean
a region with dry conditions found on the leeward side of a mountain range as a result of humid winds from the ocean causing precipitation on the windward side
Particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
Display monthly temperature and precipitation values, which help determine the productivity of a biome
A cold and treeless biome with low-growing vegetation.
permanently frozen ground
Forests made up primarily of cone bearing evergreen trees that can tolerate cold winters and short growing seasons
moderate temperatures and high precipitation
Temperate seasonal forests
More abundant than temperate rainforests. More extreme summers and winters than temperate rainforests
a biome characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters
temperate grassland/cold desert
Lowest average annual precipitation of any temperate biome. Cold, harsh winters and hot, dry, summers.
Near the equator. Warm and wet with little seasonal temperature variation
Tropical seasonal forests/savannas
Warm Temperatures and distinct wet/dry seasons.
Hot deserts. Hot extremely dry conditions and sparse vegetation prevail
Streams and rivers
Flowing fresh water that may originate from underground springs or as runoff from rain or melting snow
Lakes and ponds
Standing water that some of which is too deep to support emergent vegetation.
the shallow area of soil and water near the shore where algae and emergent plants grow
Open water. Rooted plants can no longer survive
Below the limnetic zone where sunlight can't reach. Bacteria will decompose here.
Aquatic biomes that are submerged or saturated by water for at least part of the year, but still support species of plants that can live in wet soils.
Found along the coast in temperate climates. Very productive
Occur along tropical and subtropical coasts. Salt tolerant
Narrow band of coastline that exists between the levels of high tide and low tide. Stable during high tide
found in warm, shallow waters, beyond the shoreline, and are the most diverse biome.
Algae inside the coral die. Potentially caused by lower ocean pH and high water temperatures
deep ocean water, located away from the shoreline where sunlight can no longer reach the ocean bottom
the upper layer of water that receives enough sunlight to allow photosynthesis
Deeper layer of water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
A process used by some bacteria in the ocean to generate energy with methane and hydrogen sulfide.
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