Ch 7: A Tour of the Cell
Chapter 7: A Tour of the Cell Bold terms / vocabulary AP Biology Campbell/Reece 6th Ed.
Terms in this set (75)
the ratio of an objects image to it's real size.
Light microscopes (LMs)
Microscopes refract (bend) visible light to pass through the specimen and through glass lenses in order to magnify the image.
A measure of the clarity of the image; it is the minimum distance two points can be separated and still be distinguished as two separate points
subcellular structures that cannot be resolved by the light microscope
Electron microscope (EM)
A microscope that instead of using light, focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen or on its surface. The resolution is about 100 x that of a light microscope.
Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
an electron microscope commonly used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
Scanning electron microscope (SEM)
an electron microscope commonly used for detailed study of the surface of the specimen
Goal to take cells apart; Uses a centrifuge that spins like a merry-go-round at various speeds
The most powerful centrifuge; can spin as fast as 130,000 revolutions per minute
A semifluid substance within the membrane of cells; where organelles are found
Cell w/ no true nucleus or membrane enclosed organelles, has circular chromosomes; only found in the domains: Archae and Bacteria
has a true nucleus, linear chromosomes; Domains: Eukarya
Where the DNA is concentrated in the prokaryotic cell; no membrane separates this region from the rest of the cell
The entire region between the nucleus and the membrane inclosing the cell.
at the boundary of every cell, functions as a selective barrier; made of phospholipids and proteins
contains the chromatin, nucleolus, and nuclear envelope; contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
a double membrane enclosing the nucleus; perforated by pores
a layer of protein filaments that helps to maintain the shape of the nucleus.
Within the nucleus; a fibrous material made of DNA and proteins
Chromatin fibers that coiled up, becoming thick enough to be discerned as separate structures; occurs when cell prepares to divide
a prominent structure within the nucleus; Ribosomal RNA is synthesized
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein; the organelles that carry out protein synthesis (free/bound)
all the different membranes of the eukaryotic cell
sacs made of membrane; transfer of membrane segments
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
consists of a network of membranous tubules and sac; continuous with the nuclear envelope (smooth/rough)
part of the ER where the cytoplasmic surface lacks ribosomes
part of the ER where cytoplasmic surface appears rough due to ribosomes attached
proteins that are covalently bonded to carbohydrates
membrane-bound sacs within the cell. Smaller than vacuoles.
A center of manufacturing, warehousing, sorting, and shipping; modifies the products of the ER
a membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules
A process that describes Amoebas/Protists eating by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
formed by phacogytosis; pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses a food particle
pumps excess water out of the cell (in many freshwater protists)
The largest compartment in the plant cell; functions include storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth
encloses the central vacuole; part of the endomembrane system
sites of cellular respiration (catabolic process that generates ATP); uses oxygen
sites of photosynthesis; found only in plants and algae
The narrow region between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria
inner foldings of the inner membrane of mitochondria
the compartment in mitochondria that is enclosed by the intermembrane space
a family of closely related plant organelles (includes chloroplasts)
a membranous system in the form of flattened sacs inside of the chloroplasts
the compartment within the stroma; contains the grana
a stack of thylakoids (piled like poker chips)
the fluid outside of the thylakoids; contains the chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
a microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen; produces hydrogen peroxide
a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm; gives the cell mechanical support, maintains shape, provides anchorage for organelles, motility
the thickest of the three types of fibers that make up cytoskeleton; eukaryotic cells; hollow tube made from tubulin
the thinnest of the three types of fibers in cytoskeleton; two intertwined stands of actin
fibers with diameters in a middle range that make up cytoskeleton; fibrous proteins supercoiled into thicker cables
a globular protein; constructs microtubules
a region near the nucleus where microtubules grow out from
structure in animal cells composed of cylinders of microtubule triplets; a pair involved in animal cell division
locomotor appendages; has an undulating motion
locomotor appendages; usually occur in large numbers, have a back-and-forth motion
a structure resembling a centriole that produces a cilium or flagellum and anchors this structure within the plasma membrane
a large contractile protein forming the side-arms of microtubule doublets in cilia and flagella
a globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells. Their function is support.
a type of thicker protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction
cellular extensions of amoeboid cells used in moving and feeding
a circular flow of cytoplasm within cells; speeds the distribution of materials with the cell appearing to involve both actin-myosin and sol-gel conversions in plant cells.
prevents the cell from bursting (not in animal cells). It protects the plant cell, maintains it's shape and prevents excessive uptake of water.
primary cell wall
a relatively thin and flexible cell well secreted by young plant cells
a thin layer rich in sticky polysaccharides(called pectins) that glue the cells together.
secondary cell wall
a strong durable matrix often secreted after they stop growing in several laminated layers for plant cell protection and support between the plasma membrane and the primary cell wall
extra cellular matrix (ECM)
secreted by small animals is composed primarily of glycoproteins.
the most abundant glycoprotein in ECM, forms strong fibers that are imbedded in a network of proteoglycans.
A glycoprotein consisting of a small core protein with many carbohydrate chains attached, found in the extracellular matrix of animal cells. A proteoglycan may consist of up to 95% carbohydrate.
receptor proteins that span the plasma membrane and bind to integrins
microfilaments of the cytoskeleton.
channels in plant cell walls through which the plasma membrane of bordering cells connect, thus linking most cells of a plant into a living continuum. Porous holes between the plant cells; lets the cytoplasm become continuous between the cells
fusions between adjacent cell membranes that create an impermeable seal across a layer of epithelial cells.
anchoring junctions between adjacent cells reinforced by intermediate filaments.
also called communicating junctions are cytoplasmic connections that allow for the exchange of ions and small molecules between cells through protein-surrounded pores.