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Adolescent Psychology Exam 2
Terms in this set (58)
What are patterns of socialization for gender for individualistic cultures?
Broad, both boys and girls have more educational opportunities/choices/flexibility
What are patterns of socialization for gender for collectivistic cultures?
Narrow, boys have more broad then girls, both adhere strictly to gender norms of that community.
What are the criteria for manhood in traditional cultures? What is likely to happen to boys who fail to meet these criteria?
Procreate, provide, protect; likely to be ostracized/ridiculed if criteria isn't met
What is a function of female circumcision?
Lowers the females' enjoyment of sex, control over women's sexuality
How do industrialized and traditional cultures compare in their emphasis on gender roles in adolescence?
Industrialized: Less emphasis on traditional gender roles
Traditional: Heavy emphasis on traditional gender roles
Describe the socialization of adolescent girls earlier in American history
Narrowly constricted in terms of occupational roles they were allowed to study; viewed as fragile and innocent. Groomed to be mothers and wives; virgin until marriage and asexual .
What does Brumberg conclude from her comparison of historical and contemporary socialization of girls?
Girls today are a lot less constricted but more vulnerable because we don't have protection of older women and service projects.
What is communal manhood?
In the 17th and 18th centuries the focus on gender expectations for adolescent boys was on preparing to assume adult role responsibilities in work and marriage
What is self-made manhood?
In the 19th century as society became more urbanized, young men became more likely to leave home in their late teens for the growing cities to make it on their own w/o family ties.
What is passionate manhood?
In the 20th century individualism increased further, emotions such as anger and sexual desire became regarded more favorably as part of the manhood ideal.
How do parents differentially socialize sons and daughters? Why do they do so?
Boys: encourage them to be loud, active, competitive, aggressive; discouraged from showing emotion or weakness
Girls: encourage them to be nice, cooperative, friendly, passive, encouraged to show/share emotions.
A consequence of their own gender socialization.
What is likely to happen to boys who fail to fit traditional gender stereotypes in western cultures?
What is the source and function of this social feedback?
Boys are expected by their peers to be verbally aggressive, often directing half-joking insults at other boys. It is likely that low-status boys will suffer from frequent insults and humiliation by other boys.
Both are organized used patriarchal systems; restricting men as well as women
Researchers often find more similarities than differences between men and women. Why do individuals outside of academia so often perceive gender differences?
Gender schemas: draw our attention to info + confirmation bias
What is evidence of inequity between men and women in the U.S. in leadership, employment, and pay?
Only 19.6% of women make up the US government (very low on the ranking). Women get paid substantially less in almost all employment categories than men in the same occupation. Women only make up 4% of CEO's of Fortune 500. Daddy bonus vs Mommy Tax
How do self-descriptions change across childhood?
Early childhood (2-5): Increased self-awareness. Begin to feel emotions of pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt. Unrealistically positive self-descriptions, tend to focus on physical activities.
Middle/late childhood (6-11): Description includes psychological traits and sense of self increasingly relies on social comparison.
How do self-construal's differ between western cultures and non-western cultures?
Cultures that promote an independent, individualistic self also promote and encourage reflection ab the self. In collectivistic cultures, characterized by narrow socialization, an interdependent conception of the self prevails.
Describe self-comparison theory
We compare ourselves to others, especially when we have no objective standard available.Interpret comparison differently to protect self-esteem. Types: upward- make us feel bad/comparing ourselves to someone who is better at something than you, downward- makes us feel better/comparing ourselves to people who are worse at things than us. Factors: who, interpretation, direction, esteem.
Describe self-presentation theory and insights from research on self-monitoring.
We perform different selves for different audiences and settings. We use impression management to shape what others think ab us. Insights on self-monitoring include changing behavior to for in, low SM acts same across situations, high SM change for situations/ unstable impression/lots of friends but friendships are shallow
How does self-image tend to differ across gender?
Girls: tend to dip/be low in adolescence; more likely than boys to emphasize physical appearance as basis for self-esteem
Boys: focus on strength/toughness
What are consequences (the "dark side") of the American self-esteem movement?
-Boosting self-esteem movement: many schools now emphasize self-esteem over competency.
-Dangers or high self-esteem: Can resemble narcissism, can increase prejudice and bullying.
-Negative feedback improves performance: boosting self-esteem of struggling students can lead to worse performance
-Relentless pursuit of self-esteem associated w/ negative behaviors: E.g., defensiveness, self-sabotage, cheating, avoiding intellectual challenges, approval-seeking
How does self-esteem change with age/maturation? Why?
Self-esteem rises during emerging adulthood, most people have passed through awkward changes of puberty and may be more comfortable w/ how they look. Adulthood relationships w/ parents improve, leaving behind social pressure of high school. Emerging adults also have more control over the social contexts of their everyday life, allowing them to avoid things they find disagreeable.
Describe the emotional life of an adolescent. What is the basis of this emotionality?
Adolescents report feeling self-conscious and embarrassed two/three times more often than their parents and are also more likely than their parents to feel awkward, lonely, nervous, and ignored. Adolescents are also moodier when compared to preadolescents. Brain development (limbic system "seat of emotions" is fully mature and active, prefrontal cortex is still developing) may contribute to adolescent emotionality as well as cognitive and environmental factors.
What did Carol Gilligan conclude about the experiences of adolescent girls? What are criticisms of her theory?
Concluded that girls lose their voice in early adolescence. Theory not supported and criticisms of her methodology - only spoke w/ girls.
What is social loneliness?
Occurs when people feel that they lack a sufficient number of social contacts and relationships. (quantity of friends)
What is emotional loneliness?
Occurs when people feel that the relationships they have lack sufficient
closeness and intimacy. (quality)
Describe Marcia's four statuses of identity development
Diffusion, Moratorium, Foreclosure, Achievement
What is diffusion identity status?
Combines no exploration w/ no commitment. No commitments have been made among the available paths of identity formation, and the person is not seriously attempting to sort through potential choices and make enduring commitments.
What is moratorium identity status?
Involves exploration but no commitment, in which young people are trying out different personal, occupational, and ideological possibilities
What is foreclosure identity status?
Young people have not experimented w/ a range of possibilities but have nevertheless committed themselves to certain choices—commitment, but no exploration.
What is achievement identity status?
Young people who have made definite personal, occupational, and ideological choices following a period of exploring possible alternatives.
What are criticisms of Erikson's theory about identity development in adolescence?
Seen as narrow, outdated, and biased towards western cultures.
What are ways ethnic minority adolescents might establish an ethnic identity? What factors shape this identity process?
Separation, assimilation, marginality, biculturalism ; discrimination --> separation; second/third gen or obliteration of culture --> marginality
Describe the identity process for transracial and transnational adoptees.
Marginality: perceived as being other, questions like "where are you from?"; may feel lost
How does time spent with family change from childhood to adolescence?
Drops by 50% by 9th grade.
How does marriage and family structure differ between western and non-western cultures?
When married, lives w/ son's family; extended family in household; tighter connections to family than in the west.
What is Bowlby's attachment theory?
Parent-child bond --> internal working model --> shapes all future relationships; parents need to be responsive and consistent to get a secure attachment
What is the first stage of Erikson's theory?
Trust vs mistrust; parents need to be responsive, provide warmth and nurturance --> baby w/ trust
Describe Baumrind's parenting styles. Which style seems to be associated with the most positive outcomes for American majority adolescents?
Authoritative = best outcome of child
How does parenting differ across socioeconomic status within the U.S.?
High SES parents more likely to use authoritative parenting, more likely to negotiate and encourage kids to talk to adults as peers, tend to enroll them in lots of activities to groom them for college.
Low SES parents: authoritarian or permissive/neglectful depending on levels of stress. Encourage kids to conform and be obedient. Kids not usually enrolled in extra curriculars due to conflicts w/ money or work schedules.
How does parenting look in non-Western cultures?
Labels don't quite fit; not authoritarian bc the relationships are warm and close; not authoritative bc they expect obedience
What is a source of parent-adolescent conflict in western cultures? What are concerns of parents in non-Western cultures?
Western; autonomy, who gets to make decisions ab things like dress curfew, room, activities.
Nonwestern; Less conflict, not petty; conformity to values/tradition
Due to the economic recession, it has become common for emerging adults to return home after leaving. How prevalent is this living arrangement?
40% come home after leaving
How has family life changed over the past 200 years of American history?
Smaller families, longer life expectancies, more urban, multiple institutions fill our needs, dramatic increase in divorce.
Financial stress is a common issue for custodial mothers after divorce. What increases the chances that fathers will pay child support?
Dads more likely to pay if they get to see their kids (and they have jobs)
What is the primary factor that explains/predicts negative outcomes for children whose parents have divorced?
Exposure to conflict
What are special challenges for blended families after remarriage?
Differential parenting; adjustment to new structure/new fam. 5-7 yrs to feel like a real family. Authority and unrealistic expectations. Adolescent adjust worse than kids. Step-children adjust worse than biological kids.
American adolescents tend to prefer to spend leisure time with friends rather than family. How do their non-Western counterparts compare?
Traditional cultures are more likely to have substantial gender differences in adolescent relationships with peers and family. Involvement w/ peers and friends tends to be much greater for boys than for girls.
Why are adolescents happier when with their friends?
In a close friend adolescents find someone who mirrors their own emotions; more understanding than family. Adolescents also feel open and free w/ friends in a way they rarely do w/ parents.
How do friendships change from childhood to adolescence?
Adolescents rate trust and loyalty as more important to friendship than younger children do. There is an emphasis on intimacy in adolescent friendships.
What is capitalization?
Occurs when others enthusiastically enhance our happiness by being excited when good things happen to us.
What is a source of gender differences in intimacy in friendships among men and women?
If researcher asks ab sharing emotions we see gender gap/difference. If researchers ask ab support/interdependence/closeness/ importance --> no gender difference.
What is often the basis of friendship for children and adolescents?
Similarity; people of all ages tend to make friends w/ people who are similar to them in age, gender, and other characteristics.
How does adolescent risk behavior relate to that of their peers? What can we conclude from this?
Adolescents generally perceive their friends as more similar to themselves than they actually are in their alcohol use, cigarette use, use of illegal drugs, and sexual attitudes.
What are crowds? What function do they serve?
Larger, reputation-based groups of adolescents who are not necessarily friends and do not necessarily spend much time together.
What are special challenges for cross-sex friendships?
Sexual challenge, emotional bond, public presentation, jealousy in romantic relationships.
What are findings from research on peer status?
Rejected status is worse—associated w/ depression, anxiety, suicide, mass violence, more likely to drop out of school, juvenile delinquency
Popular kids; social skills, social cognition, emotion regulation.
Describe Leary's classic study on shyness. What are implications of the findings?
Shy people were less shy in noisy conditions --> training needs to be on self esteem
What are the indicators of youth culture?
The idea that, along w/ their smaller social groups—friendships, cliques, and crowds—young people also constitute a group as a whole, separate from children and adult society.
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