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Nutrition Chapter 8
Terms in this set (50)
T/F : Anyone who eats a meal high in salt can temporarily increase his or her body's water content.
T/F : After about 25 years of age, regardless of calcium intake, bones begin to lose density.
T/F : A deficiency of sodium is not harmful.
T/F : Low salt intakes have been linked with lower rates of stomach cancer.
T/F : The bioavailability of calcium in calcium-fortified orange juice is comparable to that of milk.
T/F : The body will signal thirst before dehydration occurs to prevent problems with fluid loss.
T/F : Soft water contains sodium, which may aggravate hypertension.
T/F : Some minerals act as buffers to help maintain body fluids at the correct pH to permit life's processes.
T/F : The main source of iodine in the U.S. is plants grown in the middle part of the country.
T/F : The primary role of fluoride is to prevent dental caries throughout life.
T/F : Whether a person develops osteoporosis seems to depend partly on heredity and partly on the environment, including nutrition.
T/F : Authorities recommend foods as a source of calcium in preference to calcium supplements.
Which of the following makes up about 60 percent of the body's weight?
A. major minerals
D. trace minerals
E. gastrointestinal tract
Water assists in:
A. gene expression.
B. immune protection.
C. acid-base regulation.
D. temperature regulation.
E. providing rigidity to bones and teeth.
D. Temperature regulation
The first sign of dehydration is:
Water excretion is regulated by the brain and the:
D. salivary glands.
E. pituitary gland.
What is the most accurate statement about the body's water balance?
A. The reference man and woman both need8 cups of fluid from beverages daily.
B. All water must come from beverages because foods don't contain enough to contribute to intake.
C. Fluid needs for an individual person are the same every day.
D. Water intoxication can occur witheven a few too many cups of water.
E. Metabolic water is generated in the tissues as a product of chemical reactions.
E. Metabolic water is generated in the tissues as a product of chemical reactions
The recommended source of fluid for healthy U.S. adults is:
A. plain drinking water, because it is safe and noncaloric.
B. carbonated beverages, because they have good flavor.
C. tea or coffee, because caffeine helps maintain fluid in the body.
D. fruit juice, because it has additional nutrients we need.
E. soft tap water, because it is fluoridated.
A. Plain drinking water, because it is safe and noncaloirc
Hard water has high concentrations of:
A. sodium and chloride.
B. calcium and fluoride.
C. magnesium and sodium.
D. sulfur and potassium.
E. calcium and magnesium.
E. Calcium and magnesium
Which food has the lowest percentage of water?
A. Chinese cabbage
B. fresh apple
C. ready-to-eat cereals
D. lean steak
Which agency is responsible for ensuring that public water systems meet minimum standards for protection of public health?
A. Food and Drug Administration
B. Environmental Protection Agency
C. Food Safety and Inspection Service
D. World Health Organization
E. Water Protection Agency
B. Environmental Protection Agency
Which statement is true about groundwater as a drinking water supply?
A. It comes from deep, protected underground aquifers.
B. It is protected from new contaminants.
C. Contaminants break down very quickly underground.
D. Fast movement and aeration help keep it clean.
E. It flows from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs.
A. It comes from deep, protected underground aquifers
Which of the following helps prevent changes in the acid-base balance of body fluids?
A. iron and zinc
C. excess hydrogen ions
D. proteins and some minerals
E. pH fluctuations
D. Proteins and some minerals
What is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Calcium in the body's fluids performs all of the following major roles except:
A. regulating the transport of ions across cell membranes.
B. helping maintain normal blood glucose.
C. participating in blood clotting.
D. facilitating muscle contraction.
E. activating cellular enzymes.
B. Helping maintain normal blood glucose
A person's absorption of calcium varies based on:
A. vitamin A status.
B. protein intakes.
D. age or life stage.
E. body composition.
D. Age or life stage
Breast-fed infants absorb about _____ percent of ingested calcium.
For women and men in the 19- to 50-year-old range, the calcium DRI is _____ milligrams.
The best source of phosphorus is:
A. animal protein.
C. vegetable protein.
D. grain products.
E. fats and oils.
A. Animal protein
Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the:
E. skin cells.
The chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells is:
Adults in the United States consume an average of _____ milligrams per day of sodium.
What is the principal positively charged ion inside body cells?
The principal food source of chloride is:
B. animal products.
E. dairy products.
Sulfate is adequate in a diet that contains sufficient:
Which element must be available for thyroxine to be synthesized?
Which of the following impairs iron absorption?
B. MFP factor
C. vitamin C
What is the DRI iron intake recommendation for men and women over 51 years old?
A. 8 g/day
B. 1 mg/day
C. 2 mg/day
D. 18 mg/day
E. 8 mg/day
E. 8 mg/day
Which food provides the highest amount of zinc?
B. whole-grain bread
Which food provides the least amount of available zinc?
Which element stabilizes bones and makes teeth resistant to decay?
A zinc toxicity reduces ____.
A. iron absorption
B. LDL cholesterol
C. insulin response
D. bone density
E. chromium absorption
A. Iron Absorption
Chromium works closely with:
The best way to obtain the calcium you need is to:
A. consume more spinach, rhubarb, and Swiss chard.
B. eat more cottage cheese and frozen yogurt.
C. consume more milk, cheese, and yogurt.
D. consume more cream cheese, butter, and cream.
E. take a calcium supplement.
C. Consume more milk, cheese and yogurt.
Which characteristic or function of water allows it to act as a lubricant?
A. ability to dissolve substances
C. heat-holding capacity
D. chemical reactivity
E. ability to bond with other substances
During physical activity, the body will cool down by:
A. sweating to carry heat away from the surface of the body.
B. increasing urination to carry heat away through the kidneys.
C. drawing the blood away from the surface of the skin to let the body core cool it.
D. using the water from metabolism to cool the body core.
E. inhaling oxygen and cooling the blood as it flows through the oxygenated lungs.
A. Sweating to carry heat away from the surface of the body
When you eat pizza, the body will respond to the sodium you ingest by:
A. controlling water movement tightly to prevent any fluctuations in body weight.
B. turning off the thirst signal to reduce additional intake of fluids.
C. signaling the kidneys to immediately begin removing fluid from the body.
D. shifting water back into the bloodstream to reduce the sodium concentration.
E. first signaling immediate thirst to offset the sodium intake.
D. Shifting water back into the bloodstream to reduce the sodium concentration
When your body gives the thirst signal, it is important to:
A. consider drinking fluids in the near future to prevent dehydration.
B. ignore the signal because you just had a large glass of water.
C. drink fluids to relieve the symptoms of dehydration.
D. drink large volumes of plain water to prevent water intoxication.
E. drink a sports beverage because thirst is a signal of electrolyte imbalance.
C. Drink fluids to relieve the symptoms of dehydration
What is the best beverage choice?
A. sports drinks because they replace important minerals missing from the diet
B. hard water because it has a high concentration of calcium and magnesium
C. soft water because it replaces sodium that is lost from the body
D. fruit juices because they naturally contain vitamins and minerals
E. bottled water because it is guaranteed to be safe
B. Hard water because it has a high concentration of calcium and magnesium
Which is the most accurate statement about beverage consumption practices in the U.S.?
A. The average calorie intake from beverages among U.S. adults over 20 years old increases with age.
B. Vegetable juices are a concern because their intake adds a significant amount of discretionary calories.
C. The mild diuretic effect of a moderate intake of caffeinated beverages does not prevent people from meeting fluid needs.
D. Artificially sweetened carbonated beverages do not crowd more nutritious foods out of the diet.
E. Sports beverages are beneficial because most exercisers need the extra carbohydrate for fuel.
C. the mild diuretic effect of a moderate intake of caffeinated beverages does not prevent people from meeting fluid needs
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