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Behavioral Neuroscience Exam 2
Terms in this set (74)
Spontaneous change in a gene
(A rapid form of evolution)
The study of the mechanics of inheritance
Hormones act together
Conserved Brain Plan
Shared between mammals in relation to brain structure
Mammals look similar in early dev
Ball of cells.
1, 2, 4, 8, 16...BLASTULA
Stage 1 of Neural Development, where the neural tube wall thickens and the cells multiply.
Stage 2 of Neural Development, Most cells move towards the brain's outer surface (the brain develops inside out)
-some go back to divide further
Stage 3 of Neural Development, the process where cells become specialized in function due to genetic program(area created) and chemical signals(signals for more of a specific protein/cell type to be created effect gene expression)
Stage 4 of Neural Development, rapid increase in generation of synapses
Stage 5 of Neural Development, normal elimination of excess brain cells to achieve more efficient functioning
Stage 6 of Neural Development where synapses are retracted and the neocortex thins
The ectoderm thickens and folds to form the neural tube
Programmed cell death
The part of our perception that attention is focused on
Touch: Pressure, vibration, pain, and temperature.
Cold and menthol
Heat and peppers
Cell -> Dorsal Ganglion -> Dorsal Column -> Brain Stem -> Thalamus -> Sensory cortical region
descending modulation of pain
inability to feel pain
frequency of vibrating air, the faster it is the higher the pitch
Middle Ear: Malleus, Incus, Stapes. All 3 help amplify sound
Contains inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs)-amplify sound
Organ of Corti (cochlea)
-Basilar Membrane-vibrates in response to sound
the process in which a receptor cell converts the energy in a stimulus into a change in the electrical potential across its membrane
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.
The "hairs" of the ear (transduce sounds)
-each one has a tip link
-when vibrated depolarize, let in calcium, release neurotransmitters in response
organized according to frequency, aka auditory sense
Contract to protect ears from large sounds.
also does this. Less so)
the area of the temporal lobe responsible for processing information related to sound/audition
Comparing (intensity) loudness difference/timing difference (latency)for sound localization
Small Calcium Carbonate crystals at the top of neurons that grow with age
Vestibulo Ocular Reflex (VOR)
Inability to smell
Creation of new neurons in adult brains
-happens with olfactory receptor neurons
-is constantly replaced due to
Olfaction and Taste combined
Metaphor for the
Retinal receptors for black and white
-many near peripheral view
-used when dark out
Retinal receptors for RGB
-many in fovea
"where" of vision (location)
"what" of vision (color, shape)
Manipulating gaze control
-attention control of the visual world
Groups of neurons that when activated will move body parts a specific movement in space
-activity apparent before movement occurs***
retinal ganglion cells
A type of cell that send visual information to the brain (especially thalamus)
The space between a motor neuron and muscle.
Treat it like a synapse
Changing illumination changes how we perceive color
example: Rubik's cube with shade on one side
example 2: Blue and Black or White and Gold dress argument
Two main aspects:
-selection- some things are selected from our perception to be more important than others
(similar to a spotlight)
-capacity-distribution of "it" to various stimuli
Focusing auditory attention on a friend while in the middle of a large party. Related to attention.
Next area to look at selected beforehand, unless consciously done. Heavily related to attention, similar to a spotlight being aimed at what you're focusing on.
Looking directly at an object
Attend to something without looking directly at it
"Out of the corner of your eye"
an evolutionary increase in the complexity or relative size of the brain, involving a shift of function from noncortical parts of the brain to the cortex.
tip of migrating neuronal axons
attract growth cone
repel growth cones
Proteins responsible for growth and survival of neurons during development and maintaining adult neurons. Neurons compete for these. If not enough is acquired, they dieeeeee
Cell death. Diablo genes programmed to kill the cell
nerve growth factor (NGF)
Produced by targets and taken up the axons of innervating neurons, keeping them alive
brain derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF)
Helps keep neurons alive.
Can be increased by caffeine and exercise.
Impairment of vision in one eye, can't see clear forms.
Depriving both eyes of vision.
Leads to changes in neurons in visual cortex. Can cause permanent damage
convert stimuli into signals
A stimuli to which a sensory organ is particularly adapted to
the conversion of stimulus energy into a change in the membrane potential in a receptor cell
Loudness of a sound. Height of sine wave
Frequency of a sound.
Area of tongue with tastebuds/taste receptors.
focusing the lens
Muscle that adjusts focus through changing lens' shape
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