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62 terms

Endocrinology Quiz 1

Quiz one, Introduction Handout
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A chemical substance produced by one cell or group of cells that elicits generalized functions on other cells.
general hormone
What are some examples of general hormones?
thyroxin, cortisol
A chemical substance secreted by one cell or group of cells that elicits localized functions.
local hormone
What are some examples of local hormones?
epinephrine (neurotransmitters)
A hormone produced by the cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland that influences the secretion of hormones by other glands.
Trophic hormone
What tropic hormone stimulates the release of cortisol?
ACTH
TSH stimulates the release of what?
thyroxine
Hormones produced by the anterior pituitary whose main functions are to stimulate the gonads of adult males and females and to produce gametes as well as the true sex hormones.
gonadotrophin
What are the true gonadotrophins?
LH and FSH
What steroid hormones are produced in the adrenal cortex?
all
What steroid hormones are produced in the gonads?
androgens, estrogens, progestins only
What steroid hormones are produced in the placenta?
androgens, estrogens, progestins only
What class of hormones are the active metabolites of vitamin D?
secosteroids
Where are secosteroids produced?
kidney, liver
Which class of hormones contain only one amino acid?
biogenic amines
Which are catecholamines?
epinephrine, norepinephrine
Where is epinephrine produced?
adrenal medulla
Where is norepinephrine produced?
postganglionic sympathetic nerve endings
Thyroid hormones, including true thyroxine, are what class of hormones?
biogenic amines
Which class of hormones are characterized by the linkage of three or more amino acids?
proteins, polypeptides, peptides (PPPs)
Hormones are not stored for long times in true endocrine glands. The exception to this rule would be the _______ gland.
thyroid
What other organ also stores hormones, but is not a true endocrine gland?
posterior pituitary
What is the most common medium for hormone transport?
blood
What do hormones bind to for transport in the blood?
plasma proteins
What are two less common transport systems for hormones?
lymphatic system, CSF
Where would almost all hormones be found in a catabolic state?
urine
What is the primary method of hormone inactivation?
liver (microsomal system)
What is the reason some hormones never reach their target site?
inactivation in transport mediums
Besides the liver and in the transport mediums, where else might a hormone be inactivated?
target site
Body fluids which contains the hormone to be measured is injected into live laboratory animals and the results compared to the results previously obtained using different concentrations of the hormone.
bioassay
Body fluid containing the hormone to be measured is introduced into a test tube along with a radioactive sample of the hormone, and a substance for the sample to bind to.
competitive binding
What is the most common type of hormonal assay?
radioimmunoassay
A type of competitive binding in which the binding substance is an antibody.
radioimmunoassay
A type of competitive binding in which the binding substance is a plasma
competitive protein binding
What are the four general areas of function of hormones?
maintenance of homeostatic mechanisms, influence on growth and development, controller of reproduction, primary factor in emergencies.
What is the primary function of somatotrophin?
increase linear height
What is another name for the pituitary gland?
hypophysis cerebri
What is sometimes called "The Master Gland"?
pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri)
Where is the pituitary gland located?
in the sella tursica of the sphenoid bone
What is the blood supply of the pituitary gland?
superior and inferior hypophyseal arteries (from the internal carotid arteries)
What is the embryological origin of the adenohypophysis?
Rathke's Pouch
What is the embryological origin of the Neurohypophysis?
diverticulum of floor of diencephalon
What are the three parts of the adenohypophysis?
Pars Tuberalis, Pars Intermedia, Pars Distalis
What is the main site of secretion of Anterior Pituitary Hormones?
Pars Distalis
The Pars Distalis is also called?
Pars Glanularis
What are the two types of cells in the adenohypophysis?
Chromophobic- non secretory cells
Chromophilic- secretory cells
Releasing factors and Inhibitory factors travel from hypothalamus via ______________ to the median eminences where they enter the _______________ to go to the anterior pituitary?
Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tracts
Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Portal Systems
Is the posterior pituitary a true endocrine gland?
no
What nuclei contribute to the Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tract?
Supraoptic Nucleus, Paraventricular Nucleus
What hormones are carried in the Hypothalamic Hypophyseal Tract?
Oxytocin, Vasopressin
What is direct negative feedback?
Goes back to the source to influence production
What are the five factors that control the amount of hormones in plasma?
1. Hormones themselves can influence their own production
2. Neurological Factors
3. Psychological Factors
4. Physiological Factors
5. Mechanical Factors
What are the hormones of the adenohypophysis?
Somatotrophin, Luteotrophin, Melanotrophin, Corticotrophin, Endorphins, Thyrotrophin, Folliotrophin, Luteinizing Hormone
What is the mnemonic for the hormones of the adenohypophysis?
SLM CLEFT
What are "The Big Four"?
Stimulate Metabolism, Increase blood pressure, increase immune response, increase blood glucose (META-PIG)
What is the initials for Somatotrophin?
STH
What is the site of synthesis and cell type for somatotrophin?
anterior lobe of the pituitary by Somatotrophes in the Pars Distalis
What is the chemical class for Somatotrophin?
PPP
What is the primary function of STH in a person who is still growing?
increase linear height
What is the effect of excess STH in a child?
pituitary giantism
What is the effect of a decrease in STH in a child?
dwarfism
What are the secondary functions of STH?
stimulate metabolism, increase blood glucose, increase blood calcium, increase blood pressure, simulate breast development, increase the transport of oxygen, increase renal reabsorption of sodium and phosphorus ions, stimulate immune response, increase milk production