Ethics Midterm 2 Questions
Terms in this set (22)
One main problem with Ethical Egoism is that:
it says other people are only valuable to the extent that they serve our interests
Utilitarianism requires us to choose the action that:
produces the greatest total amount of happiness; regardless of who gets the happiness
Rule-utilitarianism has been accused of being internally inconsistent because the theory can:
easily collapse into act-utilitarianism
Kant's First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative is used to evaluate maxims, which are policies for acting. What are the 3 parts of a maxim?
situation, action, goal
According to the First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, why is it wrong to lie, in order to get money from your friend?
Because if everyone followed that maxim, they would not be able to achieve their goal, because lying to get money would never work.
According to the First Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, why should a depressed person not commit suicide?
Because if they die, that will prevent them from achieving any goals in the future.
According to the Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, you should develop your talents, because:
To develop your talents shows that you value your humanity/autonomy, because it puts you in a better position to pursue your goals in the future.
According to the Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative, the act of lying to a friend on important matters is impermissible because:
performing the action would treat the friend merely as a means to an end.
Kant says that the only good thing with moral value is the good will. What does he mean by "the good will"?
Doing your duty because you recognize that it is your duty.
Suppose someone is stalking our friend, trying to kill them. Your friend is hiding in your home. The stalker comes to your door and asks if your friend is there. You could lie, in order to save your friend, or you could tell the truth, with the likely result that your friend will be killed. In such a situation, Natural Law Theory says you have conflicting duties (1) never to lie and (2) to preserve your friend's life. How does Natural Law Theory resolve this conflict?
It tells you not to lie, even if it would save your friend's life, because lying is impermissible no matter what.
The traditional natural law theorist maintains that:
what we are naturally inclined to do reveals what we ought to do.
Which of the following is a potential problem for Natural Law Theory?
Some "natural" inclinations might be bad, and some "unnatural" inclinations and practices might be good or at least not bad.
What does Natural Law Theory say about abortion?
Abortion is wrong because it is intentionally ending a human life.
According to Aristotle, all human action aims at "eudaemonia," which means:
performing all of our life functions well.
A moral virtue is:
a good character trait, which involves having the right feelings in the right circumstances
According to Aristotle, the virtue of courage is:
having a moderate amount of fear and thereby acting appropriately
Three of these are ways to apply Virtue Ethics. Which one is not a way to apply Virtue Ethics?
A. Be virtuous, in all the ways that apply: be courageous, generous, caring, etc.
B. When you are not sure what to do, ask what a moral exemplar would do in your situation.
C. Decide ethical issues without emotion, by considering only the objective facts of the case.
D. Practice correct behavior until it becomes a habit.
Which of these is a problem for Virtue Ethics?
Virtue Ethics is hard to apply in certain cases, because it's hard to figure out what our moral exemplars would do in some cases.
Consider 2 shopkeepers. Shopkeeper 1 charges people a fair price out of love for her customers. Shopkeeper 2 doesn't like her job or her customers, but she charges a fair price because she knows it's the right thing to do. Which of the following statements would Aristotle agree with?
Shopkeeper 1 is a better person, because her inclinations or feelings agree with her duty, and so she both wants to do her duty, and actually does it.
Which of the following is a reasonable way to apply Virtue Theory to abortion?
We should think about how to apply relevant virtues, such as courage, self-control, or compassion.
Considering the traditional arguments for and against abortion, which of the following is most correct?
Each side relies on a controversial premise, and that's why their argument is not convincing to the other side.
In an argument by analogy, 2 things are being compared, and what applies to one thing is said to hold for the other as well. Which of the following conditions must be met for a good argument by analogy?
The 2 things must be sufficiently similar in all relevant aspects.