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93 terms

Athletic Training

STUDY
PLAY
Avulsion fracture
Fracture in which ligament tears off part of the bone
Ball & Socket joint
Glenohumeral joint
Contusion
compression injury
Ecchymosis
tissue discoloration
Comminuted fracture
three or more bone fragments
ligament
joins bone to bone
capsulitis
occurs from repeated joint sprains
Myositis
inflammation of muscle tissue
Aseptic necrosis
cause of osteochondrosis
Hinge Joint
elbow joint
DOMS
muscle soreness after 2-3 days
Spontaneous fracture
Stress fracture
Tendon
joins muscle to bone
calcification tendonitis
tendonitis that leads to mineral deposits
inversion force
approximately 85% of all ankle injuries that result from force
periostitis
a result of a contusion penetrating the outer layer of bone
Diastasis
technical name for total disunion between two articulatory processes
Common Sites for stress fractures
tibia, fibula, metatarsal shaft, calcaneous, femur, vertebrae, ribs, and humerous
Parts that all synovial joints have in common
2 or more bones that articulate w/ one another, a joint capsule, well supplied w/nerves, lines w/ synovial membrane
4 progressively severe stress fractures
focal microfractures, periosteal or endosteal response, linear fractures, displaced fractures
Ways that muscles stabilize joints
support the joint when it is moving, protect the joint
mechanical failure
cannot with stand stress anymore and tissue will break down
atrophy
partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body
avulsion fracture
an injury to the bone in the area where a tendon or ligament attaches to the skeleton
compression force
a force or pressure that attempts to flatten or squeeze a material
contracture
shortening of a muscle or joint
contusion
a bruise, damage to blood vessels
ectopic calcification
pathalogic deposition of calcium salts in tissues
myositis
inflammation of muscles
fasciitis
inflammation of the fossa
ecchymosis
skin discoloration caused by ruptured blood vessels, usually coincide with contusions
epiphysis
the rounded edge of a long bone
hyaline cartilage
found at the ends of bones to prevent bones from rubbing against each other and form a cushioning
ligament
fibrous tissue that connects bone to other bone
tonic
the response of muscle fiber on nerve ending typified by slow, continuous action
osteoblasts
mononucleate cells that are responsible for bone production
periosteum
membrane that lines the outer surface of all bones, bone sheath. contains blood vessels and osteoblasts
shear force
internal force in any material, which is usually caused by any external force acting tangent to the material, or a force which has a component acting tangent to the material
synovitis
inflammation of the synovial membrane
tendon
connects muscles to bone
clonic
muscle spasm w a continuous contraction
tension force
the pulling apart of opposite force
visoelastic
property of a material which is viscous but which also exhibits certain elastic properties such as the ability to store energy of deformation and in which the application of a stress give rise to a stain that approaches its equilibrium slowly
yield point
point where muscle cannot resist the stress anymore and there will be a change (where elasticity is almost exceeded
torsion
loads caused by twisting in opposite directions from opposite ends
muscle cramp
painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contraction occurs when muscle is in a shortened position
muscle soreness
overexertion in strenuous exercise resulting in muscular pain, usually occurs in activities that a person is not used to
tendonitis
gradual onset with diffuse tenderness due to repeated microtrauma and degenerative changes
subluxation
partial dislocations causing incomplete seperation of two bones
ASTM
regulates testing for sports equipment
Cantilever
protects AC joint
Corneal lens
covers the iris
mouth guard
can prevent cerebral concussions
HECC
regulates hockey equipment
NOCSAE
regulates testing for sports equipment
Prophylactic
preventative or protective methods
Scheral lens
covers the entire eye
thermomoldable
pliable heated foam
Sorbothane
high energy, high density foam
face guard to the helmet
3 in space between the top of the face guard and the lower edge of the helmet
face guard to face
1 in space
purposes of a properly fitted mouth guard
protects the teeth, absorbs shock of chin blows, helps prevent possible cerebral concussions
advantages of contact lenses
can reduce glare, move with the eye, do not fog up
disadvantages of contact lenses
corneal irritation, peripheral vision is impaired, can be uncomfortable
HIV
virus that leads to aids
HBV
virus that leads to liver inflammation
Virus
an organism that lives in cells
bloodborne pathogen
a microorganism that causes disease
OSHA
organization that is respsonsible for safety in the work place
two tests for HIV
EIA or ELISA
ratio of bleach to water
1:10
4 things done when reporting an exposure
have a medical evaluation that includes documentation of exposure route, identification of the source individual, blood test and counseling, evaluation of the reported illness
load
An external force acting on the body causing internal reactions within the tissues
stiffness
Ability of a tissue to resist a load
Greater stiffness = greater magnitude load can resist
stress
internal resistance to a load
strain
Internal change in tissue (i.e. length) resulting in deformation
MUSCLES
elastic
has some give, may be able to resist
Plastic
has no give and will not be able to resist any force
tissue failure
also known as mechanical danger, the point in which an injury will occur
viscoelastic
being able to resist or give with force
viscous
being able to resist, strong
tension
force that pulls and stretches tissue
compression
two tissue forces pushing towards each other (crushing)
shearing
force that moves across the parallel (twisting)
bending
tension and compression
key words in muscle strains
range of motion, palpable strength, discoloration
where most joints get injured
muscle tendonous junction and muscle belly
muscle cramp
painful involuntary muscle contraction
Muscle spasm
a reflex reaction caused by trauma
clonic
alternating spasms, contract-relax-contract-relax
tonic
a rigid muscle contraction that lasts a period of time
tendonosis
tendonitis without inflammation
Tenosynovitis
inflammation of synovial sheath