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Chapter 9 -The Expansion of Civilization in Southern Asia

Chapter 9 vocabulary
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Kushan Kingdom
Powerful kingdom in northern India that thrived off of trade between China and Rome, and Buddhism with a capital known as Bactria.
Kanishka
Greatest of the Kushan emperors and supported Buddhism.
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles).
Fa Xian
A Chinese Buddhist monk, who went on a pilgrimage to India and spent several years reporting the conditions in the kingdom of Mathura.
Xuan Zang
a chinese monk who brought back thousands of Buddhist scriptures and made Buddhism widely known
Pataliputra
The captial of both Muryan and Gupta empires
Gupta
An empire established in the central Ganges valley that expanded and became a dominant political force throughout northern India and also became the greatest state in the subcontinent since the decline of the Mauryan Empire. Gupta era created a new "classical age" for India.
Chandragupta I
Local raja who created the Gupta Empire.
Chandragupta II
Successor of Chandragupta I and Samudragupta who helped influence a "classical age" for India.
Bamiyan Buddhas
Extensive cave complex, which contained over a thousand frescoes and statues of various sizes, was a major religious center in Central Asia. In 2001, it was blown up by Muslim extremists.
Nirvana
The lasting peace that Buddhists seek by giving up selfish desires.
Theravada
Known as the teaching of the elders and stressed importance of strict adherence to personal behavior and the quest for understanding as a means or release from the wheel of life. One of the two schools of Buddhism and referred to as Hinayana by Mahayana Buddhists.
Mahayana
One of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith alone. Known as the "greater vehicle".
Hinayana
In Mahayana buddhist terminology, the label "lesser vehicle," given to the orthodox southern tradition now represented by the Theravada
bodhisattva
"He who possesses the essence of Buddhahood."
Avalokitesvara / Guan Yin
The most famous bodhisattva who was a mythical figure whose name in Sanskrit means "Lord of Compassion." In China, he became a she known as Guan Yin.
bhakti
(Hinduism) loving devotion to a deity leading to salvation and Nirvana
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
the Sind and Punjab
Indus Valley region of Pakistan. Taken over in 711 C.E., a historical region on northwestern India and northern Pakistan
Rajputs
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess.
Tughluq
Of north India started in 1321 in Delhi when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.
Delhi Sultanate
A Muslim leader of Ghur who defeated Hindu armies made Delhi, the third largest city of India, his capital.
Tamerlane
Mongolian ruler of Samarkand who led his nomadic hordes to conquer an area from Turkey to Mongolia (1336-1405).
Samarkand
City in southern Uzbekistan.
Purdah
The traditional Hindu or Muslim system of keeping women secluded.
Devi
The mother goddess of Hinduism.
Sati
A ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband's funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn't comply with this she would be disgraced.
Nanak
Indian religious leader who founded Sikhism in dissent from the caste system of Hinduism
Sikhism
The doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
Parsis
Persian Zoroastrians who fled to India, they became a major economic force in Mumbai (Bombay).
Jains
Religious group that believed in non-violence
Deccan Plateau
A high area of land at the center of the Indian subcontinent.
Ajanta Caves
Caves in central India; site of marvelous early frescoes inspired by Buddhism
Ellora rock temples
Consists of 34 caves that were temples and monasteries.
Temple of Kailasantha
Greatest example of Indian rock architecture. Named after Shiva's holy mountain in the Himalayas.
Mamallapuram
Also known as Mahabalipuram; has impressive rock carvings in its cave temples and is just south of modern Madras.
Sun Temple at Konarak
Standing at the edge of the sea and covered in intricate carvings, which is generally considered the masterpiece of its genre. Now in ruins but still contains some of India's most memorable sculptures.
Khajurao
The greatest example of medieval Hindu temple art.
Kalidasa's The Cloud Messenger
A hundred verse poem that remains one the most popular Sanskrit poems.
Nada
The actual physical vibrations of music considered to be related to the spiritual world.
Raga
Indian classical music based on a scale.
Sitar
Stringed instrument.
Dandin's The Ten Princes
A fantastic and exciting world that fuses history and fiction; a prose created by Dandin.
The Irrawaddy
Major river in Burma.
The Salween
Major river in Burma.
The Chao Phraya
Major river in Thailand.
The Mekong
Major river in Vietnam.
Malay Peninsula
A peninsula in southeastern Asia occupied by parts of Malaysia and Thailand and Myanmar.
Bay of Bengal
An arm of the Indian Ocean east of India.
Pagan
Kingdom in India.
Srivijaya and Majapahit
The Indonesian archipelago's two most notable trading societies.
Strait of Sunda
Narrow waterway located between the islands of Sumatra and Java
Strait of Malacca
Body of water connecting the Indian and Pacific Ocean near Singapore
Thai and Burmans
A kingdom with its capital at Ayuthaya, which was invaded by the Burmese in 1767.
Angkor Thom
Old capital city of the Khmer Empire.
Angkor Wat
A temple complex built in the Khmer Empire and dedicated to the Hindu God, Vishnu.
Kampongs
Malay for villages.
Borobudur Temple
The most famous Buddhist temple at Borobudur.
Borobudur
City in central Java that is famous for the Borobudur Temple.
Shwedagon Pagoda
Massive stupa surmounted by a spire, which is covered by gold leaf contributed by devout Buddhists from around the country.
Wayang Kulit
Shadow play that may have originally come from India or possibly China.