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Geography Test #2
Terms in this set (48)
process through which something new brings about the end of whatever existed before it.
these were men and women who signed a contract between 4-7 years of working in exchange for transportation to Virginia. Once they got there they also got food, clothes and shelter.
An organized community, officially recognized by the Canadian government.
The imposition of a foreign viewpoint or civilization on a people.
war on terror
is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States.
Spiral of deindustrialization
is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry. It is the opposite of industrialization.
an area of settlements where development and occupancy are not in the compliance with the legal, urban and environmental standards set by public authorities
The Nigerian movie industry
becoming a part and understanding European culture
process established in 2000 to prevent "conflict diamonds" from entering the mainstream rough diamond market
Colonialism in Sub saharan Africa
when the europeans came in to this area and made it their own
a transfer of money by a foreign worker to an individual in their home country
Urbanization in Sub Saharan Africa
when people in this region became more urbanized by moving into or near larger cities and began building up their region
have fled their home but found safety somewhere within their own country
southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area. It is known for its tech companies and start ups
Nunavut is one of the three territories and 10 provinces that make up Canada
the natural layering of ecosystems that occurs at distinct elevations due to varying environmental conditions
a large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.
the search for plant and animal species from which medicinal drugs and other commercially valuable compounds can be obtained.
African Rift Valley
one of the great tectonic features of Africa, caused by fracturing of the Earth's crust.
the high tableland of central South America.
a large estate or plantation with a dwelling house.
Structural adjustment programs
loans provided by huge banks and funds to countries that have experienced economic crisis
written agreement between hostile nations
Traditional Adaptations to climate in the region
Pastoralism:thisisaformofagriculturethatisbasedontheirlivestock. This is a type of farming that is fully focused on producing livestock rather than growing various crops. In Sub Sahara Africa they focus more on dairy producing animals like cattle, sheep, and goats.
Desertification:Thisistheprocessinwhichfertilelandbecomesdesert, normally because of drought and deforestation. In the Sub Sahara region they seem to be struggling with this issue more and more recently because of not only their lack of knowledge of the land they are living on but also because of natural causes. For example, one of the biggest natural issues has been droughts. Africa is pretty well known for having consistent droughts making it hard for them to farm on the land and if they do then a lot of the time, after one use they wont be able to use that land again.
Should the regions who contributed most to climate change provide technological and financial help to poorer countries that will suffer most from climate change? yes or no and explain why.
Yes, I feel as though they should help because it is unfair of them to cause such great change to the climates around them, but not help out those countries who aren't as capable, financially, to protect themselves from those changes. I also think it's important because climate change effects everything from the air pollution all the way to peoples water sources. Massive changes to regions environments because of climate change can effect the people who live in these regions greatly, it can even effect how they live their daily lives because of food, water, and the changing of their surroundings.
Why is most of Africa tectonically stable
Most of Africa is tectonically stable because it is part of the African plate and therefore not open to unsettled geological events, such as earthquakes experienced by areas located along faults. However, Easter Africa near Kenya appears to be in a slow process of separating from the rest of the continent which would result in a seaway between Easter Africa and the rest of the continent. This would take millions of years.
Africas physical environment and disease
In Africa they have very high levels of biodiversity which means that they have a high concentration of disease and pests. This is most likely because Africa has a wide variety of different ecosystems ranging from forest to desert lands. This gives opportunity for a lot of disease and pest because of people moving around, living in tight spaces, and these different ecosystems being close to each other. Many of the diseases that people catch are easily transmitted from a lot of bugs like snails and flys that can travel from ecosystem to ecosystem very easily and infect a lot of people who live in very close spaces making the disease spread and multiple very quickly.
Chinas investment in Africa
have been for a long time. They have been loaning Africa billions of dollars to build over 3000 infrastructure projects for their cities. However with money investments that are this large some of the economies in Africa cant afford to pay them back which makes it an issue because then they have to become fully dependent on China.
Africas internal conflict
there has been civil war between the two main political parties that are aligned along tribal relationships as are most political groups throughout Africa. As a result millions of people have been driven from their homes, hundreds of thousands killed, and the U.N. has its largest armed peace keeping force deployed primarily to protect foreign aid workers. Earlier this month the two rival groups reached a power sharing agreement which will hopefully bring the conflict to an end.
How did colonization complicate the ethnic geography of sub saharan Africa?
Colonization complicated the ethnic geography of Sub - Saharan Africa because it separated the people of this area and caused tension between them. Large areas of land were taken over by foreign powers which then caused tens of thousands of people to be forced out of their ancestral lands. This pushed them to become laborers and migrant workers in new, foreign, territories unknown to them.
Define reciprocity and explain why it can a problem for modern African societies
Reciprocity: the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit, especially privileges granted by one country or organization to another.
This can be an issue for modern African societies because many of the African societies and countries have reciprocated poorly. The countries and societies have not granted privileges but taken them away and thus other countries respond in kind. This has led to tension and economic unrest in Africa.
Define patriarchy and outline how it affects the status of women
Patriarchy: This is a system of government or society in which the father or eldest male is head of the family and the descent of the family is traced through the male side of the family.
This affects the status of women because they feel as though they are less than their significant others. They also are seen as powerless when it comes to authority.
Factors that have contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS in Sub Saharan Africa
Several factors led to the rapid and unchallenged spread of HIV/AIDS in SSA. The region is poverty stricken, lack of medical care, and insufficient government aid. Many of the people that are infected with aids spread the disease before they are aware they have it. They lack proper medical supplies to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS due to poor governments that can afford the aid or refuse to send aid due to tension between cultures and governments.
Primary impacts of global climate change in North America
Increased levels of coastal sea levels which could cause regular flooding of surrounding lands.
An increased temperature overall which causes more heat waves, more droughts, impacts on the plants and how they live.
This could also cause the loss of forests which leads to less carbon storage. This is another contributor to the temperature changes in this region.
Compare and contrast the US and Canada on oil, water, and food resources
Canada and the U.S. mirror one another economically in many ways. Each country benefits from a representative government, a wealth of natural resources, a productive work force and economic freedom.
The United States has also seen an increase in the size of its working population who are included in service industries. However, the U.S. has not been an exporter of natural resources and has been dependent upon other countries for its oil until recently when it has more aggressively drilled for oil and become somewhat self-sufficient. The U.S. does export a great deal of agricultural products including grains and beef. The U.S. benefits greatly from the fact that many of the world's trade is conducted in U.S. dollars.
The U.S. and Canada are both self sufficient in oil, water, coal, natural gas and food. However, Canada exports its natural resources to a greater degree than the U.S. and it's economy is therefore more sensitive to world commodity prices.
Describe the differences between indigenous and colonial land use
Many of the indigenous people lived in the northwest area of this region originally. They were well know for their ability to hunt the land well and trade their goods to other surrounding indigenous groups. There was not one set type of environment for these people to grow vegetation. Each selected group had a different item that they would grow/use which gave them the opportunity to trade with other groups who didn't live in the right environment to grow or kill some plants and animals. They also used controlled burning when it came to their land so that they could refresh the soil or forested areas after so much use.
With colonial land use the Europeans came into this region and began building their empires. They introduced new ways of life and production. They introduced market systems which allowed them to sell and buy goods which brought in profit for many people. They also used the land to find and use resources like fur, wood and minerals. However, with all of these new advances in life for the European people, they came in and kicked out the indigenous people of the land and moved them to reserves in order for the europeans to take over their land and use it for production sources.
The process of transformation of the US and Canadian economies in the late 20th century
In the late 20th century both countries experienced an increasing dependence upon the service industries (banking, software, etc.) but continued to benefit from their natural resources. The Canadian economy benefits from its primary resources, coal, oil, natural gas, nickel and fisheries and well as its agricultural production. Canada is one of the largest exporters of oil, natural gas and agricultural products - primarily grain. The U.S. imports agricultural products from Canada.
The difference in function between the US and Canadian governments
First off, the first type of difference between these two countries governments is the form of government that they are. Canada is a constitutional monarchy, meaning it's a system of government where the country is rules by a king and queen whose power is limited by the constitution. However they are ruled by what is now called a Prime Minister who makes most of the decision but still follows the same rules of the constitutional monarchy form of government. The U.S. is a republic democracy which is a form of democracy that operates on principles that are adopted from both a republic and a democracy. This gives normally a pretty fair advantage to both parties to voice their opinions and have a say in a lot of the laws and decision made in the government.
US contribution to global music
The US has brought lots of different innovations to the music world. These include jazz, rock and roll, country, hip hop, blue grass bands, blues, and many others. These types of music were able to spread quickly not only because of there up beat tunes and vase variety of sounds but also because of the US ability to dominate certain ideas and spread media and brands to many other countries around the world.
Why Canada engages in cultural nationalism
Canada engages in cultural nationalism because they want to focus on their national identity to the world through cultural traditions and not by common races or ancestry. They want people to feel as one in their country.
Three waves of internal migration in the US
This period of internal migration was considered to be the US westward expansion. People migrated from the eastern states to the western states because of the new rail lines being built which made migration much easier.
This was the migration of the Africa Americans in the mid 20th century. This was the time when African Americans obtained the ability to move from the southern states to northern cities because of the industrial jobs opening up in those northern cities.
The American migration to the south. This was post World War II when Americans began migrating towards the southern and western states because of better climates and lots of possible job opportunities that had opened up in these areas of the US.
The history of suburbanization in the US
Suburbanization began on a small scale in the late 19th century, but shot off after World War II when all the soldiers came home. People began moving out of the big cities and into smaller towns that surrounded the city. There also became more racial segregation again so it was very much split between the black and white neighborhoods especially. This was also because of the different access to loans that people had depending on your racial and financial background. Now we have come to the 21st century where people have moved closer, if not into, central cities and a few small towns across America.
The main challenges to US dominance in the 21st century
Economic dominance being challenged by China
The possibility of China increasing its military power and dominance over East Asia
China and Europe increasing their leadership roles in environmental changes and political changes as well.
impact of ENSO on climates in South America
Storms like El Nino and La Nina can easily impact climates of any region. They can bring great destruction like wiping out crops and washing away nourishment and minerals from soil. Because of this people are unable to grow crops and raise livestock in order to keep themselves alive and the people in the areas around them. It can also change some of the possible weather patterns that come through the region because it changes the ecosystems in this region.
What is demographic collapse and why did it happen in the Americas after 1492?
It was a time in Latin America where there began to be higher mortality rates because of people bringing in and introducing unfamiliar diseases that people did not know how to cure. Between 75-90% of the population in this region died between 1500-1550 because of these unfamiliar diseases. This was also a time when slavery in this area was replaced with black slaves form Africa. This all happened after 1492 because it was during the 1500s that slavory really became a thing and was brought to the Americas during this time.
List and describe three impacts of the Columbian exchange
Tobacco: Tobacco became a fad in this region during the time of the Columbian exchange. It was even seen to be the worlds first global fad. As early as the early 1500s tobacco was being moved in to regions like Europe and china. However, they were usually moving snuff, not smoking tobacco during this time.
Coffee: Coffee was originally found in Africa but became popularized in Europe. Slave labored Plantations eventually moved to the "New world", so areas like France, Haiti, and Brazil. Because of these movements and lands being taken to grow coffee it created an effect of land inequality in these areas during the time of the columbian exchange.
Diseases: During this time diseases became more widespread because of new products coming from other countries and people coming in and out of this region. Unknown disease were brought in which caused some issues with the natives.
Describe the import substitution model of economic development
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