Chapter 4: China's Classical Age
Terms in this set (53)
loosely compacted yellowish-gray deposit of windblown sediment of which extensive deposits occur in eastern China; the "silt" of ancient China's rivers
called "China's Sorrow" because of unpredictable flooding and course changes; Chinese name is "Huang He"
Yangtze River and Yellow River
Two Main Rivers in Ancient China
The invention of this farming tool advanced China's agriculture
Why were early Chinese civilizations separated?
inhabitable parts of the country (mountains and deserts)
an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West beginning in the Han dynasty; ancient China traded with pacific islanders
How much of China's land is habitable?
The Great Flood
occurred in 1920 BCE; major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations; tamed by Emperor Yu
founder of the Xia dynasty; tamed the flooding by building ditches which increased agricultural production and led to his succession
first official dynasty of China; established by Emperor Yu
second dynasty of China; succeeded the Xia Dynasty; leaders of this dynasty were warriors kings who had bronze weapons and skilled armies; in this dynasty, the king was said to have direct connection to the supreme god and was seen as a supreme being; had a polytheistic religion
regarded as the supreme deity in the Shang Dynasty religion
What are the earliest references to Shangdi?
made of turtle shell; used for pyromancy in the Shang Dynasty; had prophecies on them that the priests would read by heating the bones and the bones would then crack and the priests would be able to read the prophecy on the bones; earliest known form of Chinese
workers for the king; had a mutual connection between them and the king; somewhat like an indentured servant
capital of the Shang Dynasty
most powerful woman in the Shang dynasty; great military leader who led the army in battles against their enemies; defeated the mighty Tu-Fang tribe; wife of King Wu Din and mother
Tomb of Fu Hao
Fully excavated in 1928; artifacts, pottery and 150,000 oracle bones were found; found in the 1970s and was COMPLETELY UNLOOTED and accidentally found; relics, jewelry, things that implied she was a mother and wife, and weapons that prove she had some military/political power were found
King of Zhou people; father of King Wu; was a benevolent, wise leader; kind and tolerant; similar to Cyrus II; didn't officially take over the Shang dynasty
East and West
When the Zhou people were in power, which two periods did they establish?
son of King Wen; beautified China; initiated the Mandate of Heaven; initiated the Battle of Muye;
Mandate of Heaven
religious doctrine that justifies that a deity has chosen him to be the King of China; originated during the Zhou dynasty; enforced religion upon the Zhou dynasty; enforced a dynastic cycle
Battle of Muye
official destruction of the Shang dynasty; initiated by King Wu
Western Zhou capital that was established by King Wu which had a feudalist (social hierarchy) society
a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour; played a role into the Haojing societies
currency of Haojing; important in the trade networks
What was the first half of the Zhou dynasty?
What was the second half of the Zhou dynasty?
In the Zhou dynasty, what was the capital of the Western Zhou dynasty and where was it located?
Haojing was located in the west
What major state was established during the Eastern Zhou?
Moving of the capital east to Luoyang
What signified the beginning of the Eastern Zhou dynasty?
Eastern Zhou capital
barbaric tribes sacked Haojing
Why did the Zhou dynasty move its capital east to Luoyang?
How many warring states were there?
Warring States Period
the three centuries when various rival Chinese states battled viciously for territorial advantage and dominance; last part of the Zhou dynasty; ended with the Qin's conquest of other states was CATASTROPHIC for China; in this time, traditional values collapsed and this led to chaos; intellectual ferment occurred during this time
A system of philosophical and ethical teachings founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius; example of an intellectual ferment that was HUGE in China that occurred during the Warring States Period
Legalism, Taoism and Confucianism
What were the three main philosophies developed during the Warring States period?
ren, filial piety and ritual
What are the three essential values in Confucianism?
the Confucian virtue denoting the good feeling a virtuous human experiences when being altruistic; concept of benevolence and humaness
the Confucian virtue of reverence and respect towards elders
ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, sibling and sibling, friend and friend
What are the five relationships of Confucianism?
Are there any MAIN rituals or practices in Confucianism?
Chinese philosopher whose influence on China was of utmost importance; his ideals became the backbone of China; born in 551 BCE (500 BCE Hinduism transfer to buddhism); known as history's greatest teacher; known as the "uncrowned king"; was concerned with the day-to-day events; all of his ideas and sayings were recorded by his disciples into a book called The Analects; stressed that the importance of farming is cultivating the land; believed that women do have a place in society but are lower than men; prioritized life into 5 relationships; famous quote: "Do not inflict upon others that which you yourself would not want"
Chinese philosophy that came out during the Warring States period, due to intellectual ferment, that emphasizes living in harmony with the Dao; founded by Laozi; seen as a response to Confucianism; main text is Tao de Jing
yin and yang
Taoist belief that describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another
Tao de Jing
the main text of Taoism; states guidelines of Taoism; talked about that a ruler should rule by example and make good choices for the empire
key concept in Taoism translated to "inherent character"; this is our character and what makes us human
founder of Qin dynasty; first emperor of a unified China; successfully ended the Warring States period; divided China into 36 commanderies; hand selected leaders to be the governors of these 36 commanderies; abolished the aristocracy; outlawed Confucianism because he found it extremely threatening; burned books and buried scholars; implemented a central bureaucracy into the Qin Dynasty; standardized weights and measures, written and spoken language, and introduced a single currency called the Banliang; started the build of the Great Wall of China the north to protect and defend from the northern Chinese; obsessed with his mortality so he had 700,000 people build a Terracotta Army
unglazed, typically brownish-red earthenware
Strict Chinese philosophy that Shi Huangdi used in the establishment of his empire; worked after the Warring States period; Main Idea: there is a punishment for every crime and it didn't matter who you were
mastermind of Legalism; Elder adviser to Shi Huangdi; worked with Shi Huangdi to control China
wrote The Art of War; theme of The Art of War: Know your enemy
Chinese philosophical term often translated as "gentleman"; employed by Confucius in his works to describe the ideal man.