51 terms

World History Chapter 7 Study Guide

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Republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Tribunes
An officer of ancient Rome elected by the plebeians to protect their rights from arbitrary acts of the patrician magistrates.
Consuls
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
Veto
Chief executive's power to reject a bill passed by a legislature
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Praetors
government officials who interpret the law and serve as judges
censors
Roman officials who registered citizens according to their wealth
Patricians
The wealthy, hereditary aristocrats during the Roman era.
Plebeians
All non-land-owning, free men in Ancient Rome
Legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
Paterfamilias
the head of the family or household in Roman law -always male- and the only member to have full legal rights. This person had absolute power over his family, which extended to life and death.
Indemnity
payment for losses in war
Latifundia
huge estates bought up by newly wealthy Roman citizens
Equites
class of business people and landowners in ancient Rome who had wealth and power
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Aqueducts
Bridge-like stone structures that carry water from the hills into Roman cities
Colonus
Roman tenant farmer who replaced slaves on large estates.
Rabbis
A Jewish religious leader and teacher
Martyrs
People who suffer or die for their beliefs
Patriarchs
The ancient fathers of the Jewish people, whose stories are recounted in the Book of Genesis.
Pope
Head of the Roman Catholic Church
Inflation
a general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.
Collegia
workers' trade associations in ancient Rome
Anarchy
(n) a lack of government and law; confusion
Romulus
Founder of Rome
Spartacus
A Roman gladiator who led the most serious slave revolt in Roman history from 73 to 71 B.C.E.).
Marius
A Roman general who was elected consul seven times- he is known for the big changes he made to the Roman army, making it easier for men to be Roman soldiers
Sulla
Powerful commander -- earned his men's loyalty; general who used his army for his political advantage -- started a civil war in Rome; killed his enemies; reduced power of tribunes, more power to patricians
Pompey
Roman general and statesman who quarreled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106-48 BC)
Cleopatra
last pharaoh of Egypt; had relationships with Julius Caesar and Marc Antony; Octavian's enemy
Marc Anthony
A daring general in the army of Julius Caesar who rose to become one of Caesar's closest colleagues. After Caesar was assassinated in 44 B.C., he jumped into the struggle for control of Rome. He finally lost to Octavian and committed suicide with Cleopatra.
Nero
First Roman emperor to persecute Christians
Hadrian
"Romanized "and organized the empire- built bridges, roads, and aqueducts, ruled during the height of the Pax Romana, Built Hadrian's Wall across Britain, strengthened borders
Marcus Aurelius
Last of the "Good Emperors", Wrote "Meditations" personal reflections of his beliefs, End of the Pax Romana
Galen
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
Ptolemy
His ideas on science influenced Muslim and European scholars from Roman times until the Scientific Revolution. He was a Greco-Roman writer famous as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet. He lived in the city of Alexandria in the Roman province of Egypt, wrote in Greek, and held Roman citizenship.
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
Commodus
Ancient Roman Emperor who succeeded his father, Marcus Aurelius, and began the decline of the Roman Empire.
Huns
large nomadic group from northern Asia who invaded territories extending from China to Eastern Europe. They virtually lived on their horses, herding cattle, sheep, and horses as well as hunting.
Alaric
leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome
Attila
leader of the Huns who put pressure on the Roman Empire's borders during the 5th century
Romulus Augustulus
Last emperor before the fall of Rome
Tiber River
River that runs through Rome
Rubicon River
River that Julius Caesar crossed that started a civil war in Rome.
Carthage
City located in present-day Tunisia, founded by Phoenicians ca. 800 B.C.E. It became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by the expanding Roman Republic in the third century B.C.E.
Actium
the battle where Octavian crushed Antony and Cleopatra and took over the Roman empire
Jerusalem
Capital of Israel
Nazareth
Town where Jesus grew up
Constantinople
Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Rhine River
Europe's most important inland waterway
Black Sea
Large body of water separating Ukraine from Turkey
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