Reconstruction (1865-1896) (#8)

ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: To what extent did the Civil War and Reconstruction change American economics, politics, and society? To what extent were Americans divided over changes brought about by the growth of industry in the late 1800s? To what extent did the guarantees of the 14th and 15th Amendments protect African-Americans between 1877-1921? IN SUMMARY: A period of Reconstruction began in 1865 after the Civil War ended. The president and Congress clashed over Reconstruction policies, particularl…
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Terms in this set (...)

Emancipation Proclamation, Jan. 1, 1863
1863, Lincoln's proclamation made after a crucial victory at Antietam, allowed lincoln to push for something radical; frees all slaves in areas under rebellion; this excludes the border states, keeping them on the side of the union, prevents foreign powers from entering the war for slavery, provides a rationale for the war, and allows blacks to enlist in the army;
Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (a.k.a. The 10% Plan), 1863
It offered pardon, with certain exceptions, to any Confederate who would swear to support the Constitution and the Union. Once a group in any conquered state equal in number to one tenth of that state's total vote in the presidential election of 1860 took the prescribed oath and organized a government that abolished slavery, he would grant that government executive recognition (as long as they promised that freedmen's rights would remain intact)
Pocket veto of the Wade-Davis Bill, 1864
In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln's more lenient Ten Percent Plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect. The Radical Republicans were outraged that Lincoln did not sign the bill. Lincoln wanted to mend the Union by carrying out the Ten percent plan. He believed it would be too difficult to repair all of the ties within the Union if the Wade-Davis bill passed.
Thirteenth Amendment ratified, 1865
Constitutional amendment prohibiting all forms of slavery and involuntary servitude (except as a punishment for a convicted crime). Former Confederate States were required to ratify the amendment prior to gaining reentry into the Union.
Freedman's Bureau established, 1865
a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed freedmen (freed slaves) during the Reconstruction era of the United States, though by 1870 it had been considerably weakened.
The Freedmen's Bureau Bill, which established the Freedmen's Bureau in March 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.
The Bureau encouraged former plantation owners to rebuild their plantations, urged African Americans to gain employment, kept an eye on contracts between labor and management, and pushed both whites and blacks to work together as employers and employees rather than as masters and as slaves.
Its powers were expanded to help find lost family for African Americans and teach them to read and write so they could better do so themselves. Bureau agents also served as legal advocates for African Americans in both local and national courts, mostly in cases dealing with family issues. By 1869, the Bureau had lost most of its funding and as a result been forced to cut much of its staff.
Surrender at Appomattox Courthouse, April 9, 1865
Lee surrendered after steadily losing ground and after finding himself unable to lift the siege of Petersburg. Petersburg fell to Grant on April 2. Lee than abandoned Richmond, the Confederate Capitol, and fled west only to surrender a week later on April 9. This essentially ended the war, although some fighting continued until the end of May
Assassination of President Lincoln, April 14, 1865
Shortly after his reelection and end of the war, Lincoln was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth.
Fourteenth Amendment passed by Congress, 1866
granted citizenship to any person born or naturalized in the US; this amendment protects citizens from abuses by state governments, and ensures due process and equal protection of the law. It overrode the Dred Scott decision, and also reduced the representation in congress of any southern state that deprived African Americans of vote.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
a United States federal law that was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War. This legislation was enacted by Congress in 1865 but vetoed by President Andrew Johnson. In April 1866 Congress again passed the bill. Although Johnson again vetoed it, a two-thirds majority in each house overcame the veto and the bill ostensibly became law.
Radical Reconstruction begins, 1867
Reconstruction strategy that was based on severely punishing South for causing war; removed governments in states not ratifying 14th Amendment, made 5 military districts, state must write a new constitution, ratify 14th Amendment, and allow African Americans to vote
Tenure of Office Act, 1867
1: Enacted by Radical Republicans, it forbade the president from removing civil officers without consent of the Senate. It was meant to prevent Johnson from removing radicals from office. Johnson's effort to remove Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, whom he considered a spy for the Radicals in cabinet meetings, was seen as a violation of the Tenure of Office Act and led to the impeachment of the president. 2: prohibited the president from dismissing anyone whose appointment had required the consent of the Senate unless the Senate agreed to the dismissal
Andrew Johnson impeachment trial, 1868
attempted against President in 1868; power struggle between him and Congress; President removed cabinet officer w/o Senate approval + he interfered w/congressional reconstruction; crippled his presidency
Fourteenth Amendment ratified, 1868
See Term #8
Fifteenth Amendment ratified, 1870
amendment which prohibited states from discriminating in voting privileges on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Enforcement Acts, 1870-1871
Grant. Penalized any person who interfered with a citizens right to vote, election of congressmen was closely watched. To enforce the 14th amendment and served as a combatant to the Ku Klux Klan.
Crédit Mobilier scandal, 1872
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company's stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
Election of 1876
Race for the presidency between Republican Rutherford B Hayes and Democrat Samuel J Tilden. The decision of the winner came down to congress but no one knew which house should vote because the Senate was Republican and the House of Reps was Democratic. Congress created a Special Electoral Commission consisting of 5 senators, 5 House Reps, and 5 justices from the Supreme court. Votes went 8-7 in favor of Hayes. Hayes then ended Reconstruction in his presidency (1877).
Compromise of 1877
After the disputed Presidential Election of 1876, Congress declared Republican Rutherford B. Hayes the winner, but Republicans promised to withdraw remaining troops from Southern states & no longer attempt to reshape Southern states, but providing federal funding for internal improvements; marked the end of Reconstruction as Democrats regained control of the South
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
(A single decision on a group of cases with similar legal problems). Legalized segregation with regard to private property. Supreme Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens. (1883)
B.T. Washington's Atlanta Compromise Speech, 1895
The Atlanta Cotton States and International Exposition Speech was an address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington on September 18, 1895. The speech laid the foundation for the Atlanta compromise, an agreement between African-American leaders and Southern white leaders in which Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law.
Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
a landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Abraham Lincoln
16th president of the United States and leader through the Civil War. There are a whole ton of important facts about him, but if I really need to repeat them here then you don't belong in AP United States history.
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States, A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote. He was a very weak president.
Ulysses S. Grant
(1869-1873) and (1873-1877) The 15th Amendment is added to the Constitution Administrative inaction and political scandal involving members of his cabinet, including the Crédit Mobilier scandal and the Whiskey Ring conspiracy. He was more successful in foreign affairs, where he was aided by his secretary of state, Hamilton Fish. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of former slaves. 18th US president who gained fame as a Union general during the Civil War.
George McClellan
A major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union. Chronically underestimated force of confederate army, leading to failure of Peninsula Campaign and was fired.
Robert E. Lee
American soldier, he refused Lincoln's offer to head the Union army and agreed to lead Confederate forces. He successfully led several major battles until his defeat at Gettysburg, and he surrendered to the Union's commander General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse. One of his main plans towards the end of the civil war was to wait for a new president to come into office to make peace with.
William T. Sherman
A successful Union general who implemented the tactic of "total war" in order to defeat the South. Led successful military campaign to conquer Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Presented the new belief that not only military targets should be destroyed but that civilian targets should be destroyed as well
Edwin Stanton
Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Thaddeus Stevens
A radical republican who was one of the most powerful members of the House of Reps.-wanted to revolutionize southern society through an extended period of military rule in which blacks would be free to exercise their civil rights, and would be educated in schools operated by the federal government.
Blanche K. Bruce & Hiram Revels
Bruce and Revels - black senators + other reps sent to Congress by republican
Sam Tilden
New York Attorney that headed prosecution against Boss Tweed. Fame during trial led to presidential nomination, but he lost against Hayes as a Democrat. 25th governor of New York
Rutherford B. Hayes
(1877-1881), "His Fraudulency". President as a result of the Compromise of 1877, he resumed gold payments, refused to expand currency, and didn't overhaul civil service as promised. Complained about treatment of blacks but did nothing to prevent it. He started an era of honesty. He played down the tariff issue. He resumed assumption of hold payments and vetoed bills to expand the currency. He was involved in the Customs House Dispute, where he dismissed Chester Arthur and Alonzo Cornell from their positions as officials of the Customs House when they refused to carry out civil service reform measures. He also passed the Band Allison Act.
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, Free Speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
W.E.B. DuBois
1st black to earn Ph.D. from Harvard, encouraged blacks to resist systems of segregation and discrimination, helped create NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1910 and Nicaragua Movement in 1905.
Booker T. Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality. A Former slave, he suggested that African Americans accept segregation-for now, instead focus on vocational and farming skills to help improve their situation.
Radical Republicans
After the Civil War, a group that believed the South should be harshly punished and thought that Lincoln was sometimes too compassionate towards the South. Supported black suffrage, led by Sumner of MA and Stevens of PA
Thirteenth Amendment,1865
This Amendment was made to forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. It could only be used as a punishment for crime. This Amendment was ratified in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union.
Fourteenth Amendment, 1868
A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Fifteenth Amendment, 1870
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Significance: Gave blacks the right to vote
black codes
Laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves; passed by southern states following the Civil War
Congressional Reconstruction
The return of 11 ex-Confederates to high offices and the passage of the Black Codes by southern legislatures angered the Republicans in Congress so that they adopted a plan that was harsher on southern whites and more protective of freed blacks. (regarding readmitting of former Confederate states into the Union)
Radical Reconstruction/ Military Reconstruction
1867, removed governments in states not ratifying 14th Amendment, made 5 military districts, state must write a new constitution, ratify 14th Amendment, and allow African Americans to vote
sharecropping
A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops. Crops went to the landowner, the worker, and the provider of supplies.
carpetbagger
A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War; especially one who tried to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
scalawag
A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners, southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
Ku Klux Klan
White supremacy organization that intimidated blacks out of their newly found liberties; A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights
redemption
(Christianity) the act of delivering from sin or saving from evil
"New South"
The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
tenant farming
system of farming where farmers rented their land from the landowner, and were allowed to grow what ever crop they preferred.
Bourbons, a.k.a., Redeemers
a political coalition during the Reconstruction era of the United States. During this period of time the Civil War had just ended and a large amount of Northern politics and views were sweeping the newly defeated South. In the 'redemption' period, the Redeemers were popular among the Scalawags (white Southerners who had supported the Republican party) and won many state and local offices.
With the loss of the Confederate government, southern residents turned to leaders within their community. These local leaders came to be known collectively as "Redeemers," both for their efforts to redeem the South from being dominated by Yankees, as well as their redemption of the South from a one-crop society.
poll tax
A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote, outlawed by the 24th amendment
grandfather clause
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867. A device used by southern states to disenfranchise African Americans
Jim Crow laws
Any of the laws legalizing racial segregation of blacks and whites that were enacted in Southern states beginning in the 1880s and enforced through the 1950's
segregation
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences, Keeps minorities powerless by formally separating them from the dominant group and depriving them of access to the dominant institutions
"separate but equal"
In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that separate but supposedly equal facilities for Blacks and Whites were legal.
disenfranchisement
Condition of being deprived of the right to vote
Tuskegee Institute
A normal and industrial school led by Booker T. Washington in Tuskegee, Alabama. It focused on training young black students in agriculture and the trades to help them achieve economic independence. Washington justified segregated, vocational training as a necessary first step on the road to racial equality, although critics accused him of being too "accomodationist".
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
(also called the Sioux Treaty of 1868) was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota, and Arapaho Nation[1] signed in 1868 at Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, guaranteeing to the Lakota ownership of the Black Hills, and further land and hunting rights in South Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana. The Powder River Country was to be henceforth closed to all whites. The treaty ended Red Cloud's War.
In the treaty, as part of the U.S. vendetta to "divide and conquer", the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation. Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to poor land in Oklahoma.