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Psychology Exam 2 Chapter 8
Terms in this set (39)
What is a mood disorder?
Severely debilitating disturbance of emotion or effect. Intense, persistent, disturbance of mood.
What is Mood?
A prolonged emotional state that colors one's entire psychic life. Longer lasting than transient emotions
What is circular causality?
Mind(cognition) and body(somatic) symptoms are both a cause and effect. Circular Flow.
Is there a visibility/invisibility to mood?
Yes, behavioral components are not always clear
Common Features of Depressive Disorders
The presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood, accompanied by somatic and cognitive changes that significantly affect the individual's capacity to function (Mind-Body Connection)
What differs among various Depressive Disorders?
Duration, Etiology, and timing
How is MOOD affected for someone with MDD?
They feel depressed, sad, unhappy, irritable hopeless, and empty
How are levels of activity affected with someone who has MDD?
Diminished Energy (Fatigue)
Psychomotor agitation (slowed down)
Anhedonia= Loss of pleasure in doing activities
How are Social Relationships affected with those who have MDD
Reduced, Constricted, or Impoverished
How are cognitions different with those who have MDD
Recurrent thoughts of suicide
Mood-congruent delusional thoughts
What are the vegetative signs of MDD?
Impaired automatic functions
Significant weight loss/gain
Reduced libido (sexual drive)
How long must symptoms of depression be present for MDD?
At least 2 weeks.
How many symptoms must be present for MDD?
5 or more symptoms in the same 2 week period. One of the two symptoms is either depressed mood or Loss Interest of Pleasure
Prevalence Rates for MDD
MDD Rates are Higher for Women than men (1.5-3x more)
Lifetime Prevalence= 17%
12 month prevalence rate= 7%
What is "Reactive Depression"?
Exogenous: Due to factors in the external environment. Due to LOSS of job, individual, power, prestige.
Biological etiology for Depression
Functional Deficits in Neurotransmitters: Nonepinepherine, Dopamine, and Serotonin
Prevent Reuptake of Serotonin
Examples: Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Luvox, Celexa, Lexapro, Trintellix.
Increase BOTH Serotonin and Nonepinepherine
Examples: Effexor, Remeron, Cymbalta, Pristiq
Selective Dopamine reuptake inhibitor
Side-Effects of Anti-Depressant Meds
Nausea, Dizziness, Dry Mouth
Akathisia= "restless legs" syndrome
Anxious, Agitated, May increase suicidal ideation
New treatment for Depression
Ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic drug
Ketamine AFFECTS neurotransmitter Glutamate.
What is the Black Box Warning for Antidepressant Meds
Young adults up to the age of 25 are at increased risk for suicide
Anti-Depressants Physiological Side-Effects
Decreased libido in both genders
Decreased sensation or anorgasmia in both women and men
Sexual Side Effects= 30%-40% increase
Anti-Depressants Psychophysiological Side-Effects
Dizziness, Sweating, Tremors, Agitation
What are the neurological symptoms of SSRIs?
Brain Zaps, Brain Shocks, or Brain Shivers.
1996 Eli Lily (Prozac) Symposium renamed the Symptoms of "SSRI Withdrawal" to _______________________
"SSRI Discontinuation Syndrome"
What determines how fast the discontinuation symptoms come?
The half-life of the SSRI/SNRI
5-24 hours (shorter than Prozac)
4-8 days (longer than Effexor)
What is Anhedonia?
The loss of pleasure in normal activities
How is Level of activity affected with someone who has MDD?
Diminished Energy (Fatigue)
Psychomotor retardation or slowness
Are men or women more likely to commit suicide?
4:1 ratio of men ccommiting suicide than women
Women are 3x more likely to attempt suicide
What are the risk factors for suicide?
Depression/Other Mental Disorders
Previous Suicide Attempt
Family history of mental disorder/substance abuse/suicide
Stress factors such as loss or divorce
What are two factors of interpersonal theory of suicide that lead to suicide, and who created it?
Joiner in 2007, stated that belonginess and burdensomeness were the two factors that account for someone's desire to die.
Joiner hypothesizes that suicide is a ____________ behavior, and that is increased by _________________ injury which ____________ the pain
practiced; self; habituates
Low levels of serotonin are constantly linked to ____________ and ______________ behavior, which for someone who is depressed, may lead to ________________
People with low serotonin levels that are hospitalized for a suicide attempt are how many times more likely to kill themselves in a year?
Concordance rate for suicide is ______________ times higher for identical twins than fraternal twins
People with one or two copies of short allele serotonin-transporter gene are at higher risk for what?
Suicide: they have greater sensitivity to emotional situations and less ability to inhibit responses.
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