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SSRM Exam 2
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (53)
Abstract
a summary of a research article
Peer review
evaluation of scientific, academic, or professional work by others working in the same field.
Literature review
an evaluative report of information found in the literature related to your selected area of study
Purposive sampling
a type of nonprobability sampling in which you select the units to be observed on the basis of your own judgment about which ones will be the most useful or representative
Snowball sampling
have person you sample point out another person and continue
Quota sampling
a type of nonprobability sampling in which units are selected into a sample on the basis of prespecified characteristics, so that the total sample will have the same distribution
Informant
someone well versed in the social phenomenon that you wish to study who is willing to tell you what he or she knows about it
Probability sampling
random samples will be distributed around the actual population in a known way; certain proportions of the sample will fall within specified increments from the true population
Representativeness
representative of the whole population
Population
the theoretically specified aggregation of the elements in a study
Study population
the aggregation of elements from which as ample is actually selected
Random selection
a sampling method in which each element has an equal chance of selection independent of any other event in the selection process
Sampling unit
the element or set of elements considered for selection in some stage of sampling
Parameter
the summary description of a given variable in a population
Statistic
the summary description of a variable in a sample, used to estimate a population parameter
Sampling error
the degree of error to be expected in probability sampling
Confidence level
the estimated probability that a population parameter lies within a given confidence interval.
Confidence interval
the range of values within which a population parameter is estimated to lie
Sampling frame
list of sample
Simple random sampling
units comping a population are assigned numbers and a set of random numbers is generated and the units having those numbers are included in the sample
Systematic sampling
a type of probability sampling in which every kth unit in a list is selected for inclusion in the sample, ex. every 10th person
Stratification
the grouping of the units composing a population into homogeneous groups before sampling
Cluster sampling
a multistage sampling in which natural groups are sampled initially with the numbers of each selected group being subsampled afterwardConcept: the result of a conceptualization
Conceptualization
process of turning fuzzy notions into precise concepts
Indicator
a sign of presence or absence of the concept
Dimension
aspect or feature of the concept
Nominal measure
grouping of categories with no rank, ex. male or female
Ordinal measure
explicit rank, ex. not important, important, very important
Interval measure
can find average, quantifiable difference
Ratio measure
can have zero, can calculate mean, quantifiable difference
Reliability
will you get the same result if you test it again
Validity
concept measures what you claim you're measuring
Face validity
"seems" reasonable
Criterion-related validity
actually predict future/external criteria; better named predictive validity
Construct validity
logical relationship between variables
Content validity
measures covers range of meanings implied by concept
Exploration
to familiarize a researcher with a topic
Description
observe and then describe what was observed; answer questions of what, where, when and how
Explanation
address questions of why
Units of analysis
the what or whom being studied in social science research, the most typically units of analysis are individual people
Ecological fallacy
what you learn about a higher ecological unit can't always be applied to individuals making up that unit
Reductionism
there is no single cause of anything
Operationalization
the process of developing operational definitions, or specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable
Panel
studying the exact same people over time
Cohort
studying groups of people that are the same, ex. Edgewood students from 2008, 2012, and 2016
Longitudinal
a study design involving the collection of data at different points in time
Cross-sectional
a study based on observations representing a single point in time
Correlation
must be empirically correlated
Non-spuriousness
non-spurious relationship; no third variable
Time order
cause precedes effect, x must come before y
Necessary and sufficient causes
additional criteria for causality; rarely identify a necessary and sufficient cause; necessary will not occur without the concept, sufficient will always occur in the presence of the concept
nonprobability sampling
any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory
research design
specify as clearly as possible what it is you want to find out, determine the best way to do it
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