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Anatomy 1 Muscles
Terms in this set (230)
A component protein of thin mylofilaments in muscle
The production of ATP (the production of energy) from creatine phosphate and gluclose without reliances on oxygen and mitochondrial respiration
A broad sheet of collagenous tissue similar to a tendon, which attaches bone to muscle
molecule important in muscle energy production that contributes phosphate in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
The breakdown of glycogen into glucose
A muscle contraction that produces force but does not shorten the muscle
A muscle contraction that produces force but does not shorten the muscle
a state of subconscious isometric contraction that occurs relaxed skeletal muscle
A bundle of myofilaments that runs the length of the skeletal muscle cell
A contractile element of muscle composed of thick and thin filaments
An iron- containing compound in muscle, which stores oxygen
a component protein of thick myofilaments in muscle
stiffening of skeletal muscle after death, which rigidfies the body for about 24 hours
the cell membrane of a muscle cell
the basic structural unit of a myofibril in skeletal muscle
muscle cell cytoplasm
a network of fluid-filled tubules in muscle cells which stores calcium
in skeletal muscles, a stem cell capable of differentiating into a muscle cell
voluntary, striated muscle: usually attached to bone
involuntary, non-striated muscle
the structure in skeletal muscle that divides one sacromere from another
satelite cells located on....
Muscle perhiphery fibers
satellite cells can be activated by... (3 things)
Exercise, injury, disease
satellite cells can produce...
new myoblast that fuse to form new muscle fibers
Are satellite cells sufficient for repair of major skeletal muscle injuries...
The structure of a muscle cell reflects...
tunnels into deep network multiple cigar shaped nuclei along pheriphery of cell, beneath sarcolemma
location of ____ keeps them out of way of muscle fiber connections
Autoplasm of muscle cell
accomplish work of muscle contraction + bundle of different protiens
lacy network of fluid filled tubules that also stores calcium
stores oxygen used to generate energy muscle contraction
what kind of tissue wraps muscle fibers. fascicles + whole muscles
individual muscle fibers are...
the connective tissue muscle fibers are wrapped in is called...
covers, insulates, supports, protects
where do satellite cells reside?
in between endomysium + sacrolemma
groups of 100 muscle fibers wrapped in connective fibers called perismysium
binds together to form exceptionally tough/strong collaganeous tissue
when collaganeous tissue formed into thick cord at a single point you get a ?
When collageneous tissue formed into sheet broader linear attachement, the epimusium is called=
a motor unit is..
motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
somatic motor neurons
carries signal that stimulates skeletal muscle contraction
compromises somatic motor neurons and the skeletal muscle fibers it controls
motor neurons connect muscle fibers at the
the axon terminal....
enlarges into a pancake like swelling called the synaptic bulb
meets skeletal muscle fiber @ chemical synapse called neuro muscular junction
components of neuromuscular junction (1)
synaptic bulb of neuron
motor and plate of muscle (fiber-part of fibers sacrolemma across synaptic bulb)
Components of neuromuscular junction (2)
3rd component of neuromuscular junction
synaptic cleft- narrow space separates synaptic bulb from the motor end plate (nerve/muscle dont actually attach)
each bundle of myobrils is a....
myofilaments are composed of
contractile protiens (thick +thin filaments essential for contraction)
think filaments are bundles of myosin protein- each molecule of myosin is composed of long shaft (tail)
one end if myosin is=
2 binding sites for myosin
1 for ATP- 1 for thin filaments
when bound myosin....
thin filaments form a cross-bridge
Cross bride cycle
bundles of thin myofilaments slide the bundles of thick myofilaments
in the muscle cell... the task of sliding the bundles toward each other is the job of...
myosin heads succeed producing movement in 3 events called?
cross bridge cycle
Cross bridge cycle 3 events=
cross bridge formation- power stroke- cross-bridge dettachment
power stroke is part of
cross bridge cycle
filament actually moves (molecular movement) strange + effective
power strokes key operators
myosin heads serves as a claw that grabs a "pearl" of actin on a thin filament, then anchors itself to it then snaps backward- pulling the filament along myosin tail (short distance)
myosin head serves as a _____ thats grabs a pearl of _______ on a ________. Then ______ itself to it then snaps backwards
claw. thin filament. anchors.
After the short pull (in cross bridge cycle) the myosin heads R______, R_______ + R_____
release, re-cock, reattach to another actin pearl further along the thick filament ready to snap backward again
thick and thin filaments _____ along each other (cross bridge)
Sequence of events- muscle contraction
muscle fiber @ rest- myosin binding sites on actin molecules are covered by TROPOMYOSIN (1)
TROPOMYOSIN COVERS (muscle contraction)
myosin binding sites on actin molecules (1)
In response to action potential in sarcolemma _ t tubles, ca2 is released from (muscle contraction)
sarcoplasmic recticulum (2)
ca2 binds to + activates troponin which then moves.... (muscle contraction)
tropomyosin out of the way (3)
after tropomyosin is moved out of the way... (muscle contraction)
myosin is exposed/binding site on each actin molecule (4)
once myosin is exposed on binding site (muscle contraction). what begins?
the cross bridge cycle
Cross bridge formation begins...
when energized myosin heads bind to actin
energy is released by ______ cleavage stored in _______ position of myosin heads (cross bridge formation)
Stored energy has the _______ pivot the myosin heads to move thin filaments (cross bridge formation)
Molecules _______ after powerstroke (cross bridge formation)
what kind of molecules diffuse after powerstroke
ADP + phosphate
cross bridge stays the same in last step only with additional... (Cross bridge formation)
When fresh ATP binds to a myosin head= (cross bridge formation)
myosin head releases from the actin
once myosin head is released in cross bridge formation....
ready to begin another cross bridge
Occurs in waves
cross bridge formation
waves of molecular increments repeated quickly cause fibers...
at any point in contraction... (CBF)
myosin heads attached actin = thin filaments cannot slide back to their origional positions
A motor unit is....
somatic motor neuron and the skeletal fiber it controls
the compound that stores oxygen in muscle cells is...
you're waiting for your new bf in the coffee shop. its raining and hes a bit late. you smile when he walks through the door. what is the prime mover of your facial expession?
what does jazz trumpeter wynton marsalis have most common with the great 20th centry trumpeter louis armstrong
well developed buccinator mucles
which statement is true about creatine phosphate mechanisms of ATP generation?
a phosphate is transffered to ADP
in complete tetanus, action potentials arrive at a speed that allows slight relaxation between contractions
you say your 9 year old son "show me how strong you are" he flexes his right upper limb at the elbow and tightens one muscle that buldges on the anterior of his arm. what muscle is he showing off?
the end product of glycolysis is?
the muscle that opposes a given action is called the
the prime mover in plantar flexion is the
muscle contraction occurs when thin filaments on a sarcomere are pulled close together and overlap
the adductor muscles are located on the lateral part of the thigh
the connective tissue layer that surrounds the fascicle is
the neurotransmitter in action at every skeletal neuromuscular junction is
as you are reading this question, you are probably sitting or not actively moving. but your muscles are not completely relaxed. what action is taking place?
when youve finished this exam. youll probably breathe of heavy sight of relief. what muscle(s) will allow you to exhale?
my internal intercostals
a unique feature of cardiac muscle is that
cardiac muscle cells branch out to connect with other skeletal muscle cells
2 cause of ___ muscle fatigue are lack of blood and perfusion and excess phosphate accumulation.
fatty acids are metabolized in what mechanisms of ATP generation
a single neruon and all the muscle fibers it stimulates comprise a
fast twich muscle fibers are usually
quick to fatique
binding sites on actin molecules are covered by troponin and ______ when a skeletal muscle is at rest
what causes myosin to release the cross bridge with actin
an ATP molecule binding to the myosin ehad
the muscle that closes the lips is the
which of the following events occurs during skeletal muscle relaxation
calcium is pumped into sarcoplasmic reticulum
neighbor has returned home after a month in the hospital from extensive abdominal surgery. he has lost a lot of weight and usually well-defined muscles look weak and droopy. he ask to create a excercise regimen to help he strength? recommend?
do leg squats holding 10 pound weights at the gym, increasing by 2 pounds every other day
which of the following is not a function of muscular system
body cooling thru evaportaion
posture, heat generation, skeletal movment are function of?
in muscle relaxation, the calcium pump uses ATP to transport calcium to the sarcoplasmic reticulum
which of the following is a not a muscle of the head
the rectus femorus, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius all make of the quadriceps?
the enzyme that catalyzes glycogenolysys is
which of the following statements is true about smooth muscle
myoisin heads appear along the entire lengeth of thick filaments
the membrane surrounding individual muscle fibers are the
an important characteristic of smooth muscle is that
the major sourse of calcium is extracellular fluid
atp is required to maintain
ATp fuels ____ important aspects for muscle energy
what are the 3 important aspects of muscle energy
sarcolemma membrane, cross bridge cycle, muscle relaxation
Sarcolemma membrane is important why (muscle energy)
Responsible for maintaning Na+ and K+ gradients (Na+/K+-ATPase)
The sacrolemma membrane requires what ___ potential for muscle energy
2nd important factor of muscle energy
Cross bridge cycling
Myosin heads use energy form ATP cleavage= myosin head power stroke + cross bridge breaks fresh ATP binds is what (muscle energy)
Cross bridge cycling (2nd factor)
Muscle relaxation uses....
calcium pump uses ATP to actively transport calcium into sarcoplasmic reticulum
ATP stores energy in.... (muscle energy)
Energy is released from chemical bond (muscle relaxation) when _______ is removed from ATP, generating ATP.
ATP + H2o ---> ADP + H2o + Po1 + energy =
energy released when atp phosphate removed from atp generating atp
energy is _______ to force it in the opposite direction (convert energy depleted back to APP
Energy required to force it in opposite direction. gets energy mostly from... (muscle relaxation)
muscle is constantly generating ADP in many processs.
processs that involve chemical reactions=
more time to complete
processs that produce ______ amounts of atp involve chemical reactions. and more time to complete
ATP sotes creatine phosphate to
provide immediate energy
muscle stiffening beings hours after death
in death the body can
no longer generate ATP
myosin heads bound to actin binding sites but stops there
when enzymes escape from lysozomes + disgest myofribils where muscle relaxes is
muscle relaxes when cross bridge cycling...
cross bridge cycling reverse steps
w/o continued action potential motor neruon releases of ach. ceases. Acetylcholinesterase degrade all ach molecules= synaptic cleft
1st step rigor mortis
w/o ach+ nicotinic receptor channels close. actions potntials in sarcolemma cease.
2 step rigor mortis
SR calcium channels close
3rd steps rigor mortis
after SR calcium channels close in 3rd step R M
Ca2 pumps takes up remaining ca2 ions in SR
sarcoplasmic ca2 dissociates from troponin- tropmyosin resumes previous position over myosin binding sites
step 4 rigor mortis
myosin no longer binds to actin- thick filaments loose grip on thin filaments
step 5 rigor mortis
muscle tissie is
sacromere rapidly returns to _____ during ______ ______
resting length during rigor mortis
ATP sores creatine phosphate to provide
generated by by earlier nutrient metabolism....
muscles store small amount of atp for few seconds of activity
in atp/creatine phosphate... muscle fibers rupture
After ATP fibers rupture (creatine phosphate/atp) the atp falls...
mechanism of defense
creatine phosphate works...
by converting depleted ADP into ATP
depleted ADP into ATP transfers by....
can regenerate creatine phosphate
glycolysis occurs in
glycolysis type of metabolism
pyruvate + ATP
glycolysis breaks down
gluclose into pyrubate
fastest method generating nutrients
initial source in glycolysis
in glucolysis glycogen is stored within....
in glycloysis what must be broken down to generate atp
a eaction in glucolysis is
glycogenolysis is catalized by
in glycogenolysis/glycolysis can blood be used
when glycogen is most abudant reaction is...
anaroebic metabolism requires
generates 3 atp per 1 gluclose from glycogen
when blood gluclose used only ____ atp generated in anaerobic metabolism..
cost ____ atp molecule to convert blood gluclose into gluclose 6 phosphate
1 atop molecule converting blood gluclose into gluclose 6 phosphate
pryuvate is anabolic metabolisms...
pryuvate can be an...
additonal atp source
pyruvate is usually converted to what first
1/2 converted back to pyruvate within same muscle cell. other remaining will travel to nerby muscles
contraction aerobically + anaerobically
aerobic dependent on
aerobic generates most required atp from
glycolysis derived pyruvate, fatty acids, amino acids
depends on muscle glucogen stores
most lactic acid travels to ____ in anarobic metabolism
left behind _____ in anarobic metabolism can convert back to ______ pyruvate
Small amount of lactic acid can travel to ______ (organ) and converted into gluclose
mitochondrial ATP production meets?
long term energy needs
host of enzymes that completely break down various nutrients and generate large amounts of ATP?
in Mitochondrial atp production what are the two stages?
citric acid cycle + mitochondrial respiration
mitochondrial atp generation is described as aerobic bc it requires _____?
Most of the required oxygen comes from _____ in mitochondiral atp
oxygen bound to hemoglobin BUT some it is obtained from oxygen bound to myoglobin muscle
mitochondria arent picky about their ____
nutrient source but their oxygen need is absolute
o2 ---> CO2---> + H2o +ATP
Mitochondria metabolize _________ and fatty acids (mitochondiral ATP productions/long term energy needs)
the fatty acids (mitochondrial/long term energy needs) come from
lipid dropplets within muscle fibers or blood
Mitochondira provide ATP at what pace?
slow and stready
how many ATPs per gluclose molecule do mitochondira provide (mitochondiral ATP/long term energy needs)
30 ATPS per gluclose
protiens are used for fuel as a
slow twitch muscle fibers are
oxidative type 1 fibers
oxaditive type 1 fibers are
optimized for aerobic metabolism
skeletal muscle fibers are either?
oxidative or glycolytic
oxidative or glycolytic are classified according to the muscles
primary ATP generation
slow twitch fibers are packed with
blood vessels (keep them supplied with gluclose, oxy, fatty acids)
slow twitch fibers are generally
slow to fatigue + thin
slow twitch fibers are suited for what mind of muscles?
that are continously at work. ex. muscles that maintain posture
fast twitch fibers are labeled also
glycolytic type II fibers
glycolytic II fibers are optimized for
Fast twitch fibers need
large supplies of creatine phosphate, glycoytic enzymes and glycogen bc muscle generates 3 atp per gluclose
Fast twitch fibers have less
myoglobin + fewer mitochondria+ blood vessels
skeletal muscle can experience
when muscle is vigorously excercised it looses ability to respond to
nerve stimulation = muscle fatigue
why do muscles get fatigued?
untrained muscles have blood delivery problem. not enough capillaries perfusing their oxidative fibers.
benefit of endurance training
growth of more blood vessels supplying oxidative fibers
fatigue is maximal in which type of exercise?
anaerobic (phosphate accumilation)
energy is liberated from ATP by cleaving off
maximal energy uses a lot of
atp in short time
how does phosphate interfer with contraction in excercise?
by build up of phosphate. blocking cross bridge formation and reacting with calcium in the SR. reducing release in sacroplasm
muscle fatigue types
peripheral fatigue and central fatique
increased body temp leads the brain to
send fewer signals to muscles while excercising
individual muscle exertion depends on
force exerted by contraction fiber +number of motor units contracting
individual fibers provide
excercise has ____ effect on
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
struggling practice test
Anatomy muscles 2
Cross bridge cycle
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