20 terms

Conceptual Physics: Newton's Second Law of Motion

Conceptual Physics 10th e. by Paul G. Hewitt Summary of Terms, Summary of Formulas, and Terms Within the Textbook
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Friction
The resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object either past another object with which it is in contact or through a fluid.
Mass
The quantity of matter in an object. More specifically, it is the measure of the inertia or sluggishness that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, deflect it, or change in any way its state of motion.
Weight
The force due to gravity on an object.
Kilogram
The fundamental SI unit of mass. One kilogram (symbol kg) is the mass of 1 liter (1 L) of water at 4° C.
Newton
The SI unit of force. One newton (symbol N) is the force that will give an object of mass 1 kg an acceleration of 1m/s².
Volume
The quantity of space an object occupies.
Newton's second law
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Force
Any influence that can cause an object to be accelerated, measured in newtons (or in pounds, in the British system).
Free Fall
Motion under the influence of gravitational pull only.
Terminal speed
The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because air resistance balances its weight. When direction is specified, then we speak of terminal velocity.
Terminal velocity
Terminal speed together with the direction of motion (down falling objects).
acceleration ~ net force
An object's acceleration is directly proportional to the net force acting on it.
static friction
Force between two objects at relative rest by virtue of contact that tends to oppose sliding.
sliding friction
Contact force produced by the rubbing together of the surface of a moving object with the material over which it slides.
air resistance (a.k.a. air drag)
Friction, or drag, that acts on something moving through air.
fluid
Anything that flows; in particular, any liquid or gas.
Acceleration ~ 1/ mass
For a given force, the acceleration produced is inversely proportional to the mass.
Inversely
The two values change in opposite directions. (As the denominator increases, the whole quantity decreases. For example, the quantity 1/100 is less than 1/10.
Summarized form of Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
Acceleration ~ net force/ mass
The briefest form of Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
a = Fnet / m