33 terms

Emotion, Stress and Health

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emotion
a response of the whole organism, involving (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience.
James-Lange theory
the theory that our experience of emotion is our aware- ness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli.
Cannon-Bard theory
the theory that an emotion-arousing stimulus simultane- ously triggers (1) physiological respons- es and (2) the subjective experience of emotion.
two-factor theory
the Schachter- Singer theory that to experience emo- tion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
polygraph
a machine, commonly used in attempts to detect lies, that measures several of the physiological responses accompanying emotion (such as perspi- ration and cardiovascular and breathing changes).
catharsis
emotional release. In psy- chology, the catharsis hypothesis main- tains that "releasing" aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
subjective well-being
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well- being (for example, physical and eco- nomic indicators) to evaluate people's quality of life.
adaptation-level phenomenon
our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience.
:relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself.
:behavioral medicine
an interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease.
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
stress
the process by which we per- ceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in three states—alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
coronary heart disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Type A
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
Type B
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
psychophysiological illness
literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.
psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
the study of how psychological, neural, and endocrine processes together affect the immune system and resulting health.
lymphocytes
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system
B lymphocytes
form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections;
T lymphocytes
form in the thymus and other lym- phatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
coping
alleviating stress using emo- tional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
problem-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction
aerobic exercise
sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
biofeedback
a system for electroni- cally recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pres- sure or muscle tension.
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
as yet unproven health care treatments intended to supplement (complement) or serve as alternatives to conventional medicine, and which typi- cally are not widely taught in medical schools, used in hospitals, or reimbursed by insurance companies. When research shows a therapy to be safe and effective, it usually then becomes part of accepted medical practice.
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)
Immune system disease caused by the a virus which over a period of years weakens the capacity of the immune system to fight off infection so that weight loss and weakness set in and other afflictions such as cancer or pneumonia may hasten an infected person's demise
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)
A virus that attacks and destroys the human immune system.
pessimism
the tendency to focus on the negative and expect the worst
Depression
A prolonged feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, and sadness
Carcinogen
A cancer-causing substance