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causes of atrophy
decreased workload, a loss of innervation, a diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, a loss of endocrine stimulation, and aging.
membrane-bound residual bodies
vacuoles which contain materials that resist digestion and persist in the cytosol
large epithelial cells that contain a brightly eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm packed with mitochondria
the transformation in chronic gastric reflus of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium to gastric or intestine-type columnar epithelium.
Barrett esophageal metaplasia has been linked to __________ ______________.
Heat Shock Proteins
function as stress proteins after injury to refold and restore function of denatured proteins. also tag irreversibly denatured proteins for disposal.
Use of barbituates leads to...
...induction of hepatocyte SER and metabolic (P-450 mixed function oxidase system) enzymes.
results of cytoskeletal abnormalities
aberrant movement of intracellular organelles, defective cell locomotion, or intracellular accumulations of fibrillar material.
membrane-bound intracellular organelles containing a variety of hydrolytic enzymes
when smooth muscle cells and macrophages are filled with lipid vacuoles composes of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters
rounded, eosinophilic inclusions formed by accumulation of newly synthesized Ig in some plasma cells
an eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion of aggregated prekeratin intermediate filaments in liver (characteristic of alcoholic disease)
In poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, ________ is seen within the kidney, heart, and pancreas.
Glycogen storage disease
enzymatic defects in the synthesis or breakdown of glycogen resulting in massive stockpilin, with secondary injury and cell death.
Melanin is synthesized from ________ via __________ in ___________.
tyrosine; tyrosinase; melanocytes
Sites of cell injury
1. cell membrane integrity
2. ATP generation
3. protein synthesis
4. integrity of genetic apparatus
Mild cellular injury may cause swelling of the ____________ with disappearance of granules.
________ of the ER is one of the first ultrastructural manifestations of increased cell permeability.
results from energy loss for sodium pump, influx of sodium and water, "cloudy swelling"
severe cellular swelling producing clear vacuoles in cyoplasm, aka vacuolar degeneration.
The presence of what enzymes are diagnostic for MI?
glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase
shrinking of the nuclear chromatin, due to destruction and condensation of nuclear material
hallmark appearance of dead cell
cell with an eosinophilic granular outline, devoid of a nucleus or any internal cytoplasmic structures.
results in an abscess filled with pus, characteristic of bacterial infections and hypoxic damage of CNS
rapid denaturation of all cellular proteins, including lysosomal enzymes, resulting in blockage of cellular digestion
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