How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

74 terms

Disease at the Cellular Level

STUDY
PLAY
Cellular response to stress
1. Adaptation
2. Reversible Injury
3. Irreversible Injury, death
First changes from stress occur at...
...molecular and biochemical level.
Sequence of changes within cell from stress
1. Biochemical
2. Functional
3. Morphologic
Hypoxia
a reduction in oxygen supply to tissue
Ischemia
a loss of blood supply to tissue due to impeded arterial flow or reduced venous drainage.
________ is the most common cause for hypoxia.
Ischemia
Immune mechanisms can react with both _________ and __________ antigens.
exogenous; endogenous
Autoimmunity
an immune response to host cells
Hemoglobin S
The affected protein in sickle cell anemia. exhibits a single amino acid substitution.
Aging can result in...
...a diminished ability to respond to exogenous stimuli and injury.
Hypertrophy
an increase in the size of a cell
Hyperplasia
an increase in cell number
Atrophy
a decrease in the size of a cell
causes of atrophy
decreased workload, a loss of innervation, a diminished blood supply, inadequate nutrition, a loss of endocrine stimulation, and aging.
What forms in atrophy in order to catabolize self-components?
Autophagic vacuoles
membrane-bound residual bodies
vacuoles which contain materials that resist digestion and persist in the cytosol
Aplasia
total failure of a structure to develop
hypoplasia
incomplete developement of a structure
metaplasia
a change in which one adult cell type is replaced by another adult cell type
oncocytes
large epithelial cells that contain a brightly eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm packed with mitochondria
oncocytic metaplasia
often seen in salivary gland parenchyma associated with aging
influences that induce metaplastic transformation, if persistent, may induce ______.
cancer
Barrett esophagus
the transformation in chronic gastric reflus of esophageal stratified squamous epithelium to gastric or intestine-type columnar epithelium.
Barrett esophageal metaplasia has been linked to __________ ______________.
esophageal adenocarcinoma
Heat Shock Proteins
function as stress proteins after injury to refold and restore function of denatured proteins. also tag irreversibly denatured proteins for disposal.
Use of barbituates leads to...
...induction of hepatocyte SER and metabolic (P-450 mixed function oxidase system) enzymes.
results of cytoskeletal abnormalities
aberrant movement of intracellular organelles, defective cell locomotion, or intracellular accumulations of fibrillar material.
Primary lysosomes
membrane-bound intracellular organelles containing a variety of hydrolytic enzymes
heterophagy
breakdown of ingested materials
autophagy
removal of damaged or senesscent organelles
some ______ can remain undigested in lysosomes.
lipids (e.g. lipofuscin)
steatosis
fatty change, most often seen in liver rusulting from alcohol abuse
atherosclerosis
when smooth muscle cells and macrophages are filled with lipid vacuoles composes of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters
Russell bodies
rounded, eosinophilic inclusions formed by accumulation of newly synthesized Ig in some plasma cells
Mallory body
an eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion of aggregated prekeratin intermediate filaments in liver (characteristic of alcoholic disease)
In poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, ________ is seen within the kidney, heart, and pancreas.
glycogen
Glycogen storage disease
enzymatic defects in the synthesis or breakdown of glycogen resulting in massive stockpilin, with secondary injury and cell death.
the most common exogenous pigment inclusions are ______.
carbon
Hemosiderin
a yellow-brown granular iron-containing pigment
hemosiderosis
a systemic excess of iron, which does not cause tissue damage
Hemochtomatosis
a systemic iron overload disorder, which causes parenchymal tissue damage.
jaundice
a buildup of bilirubin, usually seen in skin and eyes from obstruction of bile duct
wear-and-tear or aging pigment
lipofuscin
Presence of lipofuscin is an important marker of...
...past free radical injury
Melanin is synthesized from ________ via __________ in ___________.
tyrosine; tyrosinase; melanocytes
_____ _____________ adjacent to melanocytes may accumulate melanin.
Basal keratinocytes
Dystrophic calcification
deposition of calcium salts in dead or dying tissues
Metastatic calcification
reflective of hypercalcemia, deposition of calcium salts in normal tissues
Sites of cell injury
1. cell membrane integrity
2. ATP generation
3. protein synthesis
4. integrity of genetic apparatus
Mild cellular injury may cause swelling of the ____________ with disappearance of granules.
mitochondria
Severe injury of a cell will disrupt the mitochondrial ________.
membrane
________ of the ER is one of the first ultrastructural manifestations of increased cell permeability.
Dilation
Membrane changes are present in...
...later stages of injury.
degenerations
light microscopic changes associated with nonlethal injury
_______ changes are rarely seen until cell death.
Nuclear
Cellular swelling
results from energy loss for sodium pump, influx of sodium and water, "cloudy swelling"
hydropic degeneration
severe cellular swelling producing clear vacuoles in cyoplasm, aka vacuolar degeneration.
Fatty changes are a sign of...
...more severe cellular injury.
The presence of what enzymes are diagnostic for MI?
glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase
Necrosis
the sequence of morpholigic changes that follow cell death in living tissue
autolysis
when hydrolytic enzymes derive from dead cells themselves.
heterolysis
when hydrolytic enzymes derive from lysosomes of invading inflammatory cells
denaturation of protein occurs as a result of...
...a rapid drop in pH.
Karyolysis
a progressive fading of the basophilia a chromatin, due to DNase
pyknosis
shrinking of the nuclear chromatin, due to destruction and condensation of nuclear material
Karyorrhexis
fragmentation of pyknotic chromatin
hallmark appearance of dead cell
cell with an eosinophilic granular outline, devoid of a nucleus or any internal cytoplasmic structures.
Liquifaction Necrosis
results in an abscess filled with pus, characteristic of bacterial infections and hypoxic damage of CNS
Pus
fluid composed of digested cellular debris, neutrophils, and fluids
Coagulation Necrosis
rapid denaturation of all cellular proteins, including lysosomal enzymes, resulting in blockage of cellular digestion
cuagulation necrosis is characteristic of...
...hypoxic death in all tissues other than CNS. (MI)
Caseous Necrosis
occurs in TB, results in debri accumulation with a cheesy gross appearance
apoptosis
programmed cell death
DNA laddering
a useful marker for apoptosis, however not diagnostic for programmed cell death