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What are the three Nervous System functions?
Sensory input - gathering information
Integration - process and interpret sensory input
Motor input - response to stimuli
What are the two sturctural classifications of the Nervous System?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
T/F the Central nervous system is not the command center of the entire Nervous system?
False - it is the command center
How many functions does the Peripheral nervous system have?
Afferent Division- towards the Central nerovus system
Efferent- away from the Central nervous system
What is the man function of the Afferent Division of the Peripheral nervous system?
collection of sensory input from sensory receptors and sending input to the Central nervous system
What is the Main function of the Efferent division of the PNS?
Activates muscles and glands
carry impulses to effector organs
What are the two main parts of the Effector division?
Somatic Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
T/F The Somatic nervous system is part of the Afferent division?
False - it is part of the Efferent division
T/F the Somatic Nervous system sends impulses to the involuntary muscles?
False - it sends impulses to the skeletal muscles - the voluntary nervous system
What muscle group does the Autonomic Nervous sysyem send inpules to?
Glands, Visceral organs, and Cardiac Muscles
Name the functions of Astrocytes.
Help form neuron connections
process local environment
anchor to nutrient site
What are the three characteristics of neurons?
amitotic - lost ability to divide
high metabolic rate
What are the six parts of a neuron structure?
T/F Myelin sheaths are made the same way in both the PNS and CNS?
False -Schwann cells in the PNS Oligodendrocytes in CNS
Ions (charged particles) _______ (can/cannot) pass through membranes on thier own?
cannot - need protien channels
T/F All channels are always open?
False- some are always open, and some require something to open/close
Once gated channels are open, what do ions move along?
Concentration gradient and/or Electrical gradient
T/F Ions only move along the Electrical gradient when gated channels are open?
False - Both concentration and electrical gradients
What is the Electrochemical gradient?
The influence on ion movement based on the combination of electrical and chemical gradients
What changes the electrical charge in intracellular and extracellular fluids?
The amount of Na+ and K+ inside or outside the membrane
What are the two ways to change membrane potentials?
Change membrane permeability to any ion
alter ion concentration on either side of the membrane
When do graded potentials occur?
When environmental change near the neutron causes gated ion channels to open
Current in graded membrane is lost with distance due to ions _____?
Being lost through leaky membranes
T/F Graded potential used by dendrites and cell bodies covers long distances?
False - short distance
What are the 4 steps to generate action potential?
When Na+ channels begin to open the action potential is entering the ____ ____?
What mv threshold does the membrean have to hit in order for depolarization to become self perpetuation?
T/F In hyperpolarization the mv levels drop more than needed before resting state is achieved?
True- Na+ and K+ pumps restore normal levels
The act of AP moving from one area to another to another to another is called?
Propogation of action potential
T/F Action potential is propogated when a voltage disturbance moves down the cell body?
False- the length of the axon
Why does AP travel faster along a myelinated axon compared to an unmyelinated axon?
the ion channels at the Nodes of Ranvier allow the AP to not have to open every gated channel and instead skip to the next node
T/F If a person has MS, their immune sytem kill its Schwann cells, resulting in a loss of myelin sheaths?
Nerve fibers in group A are characterized by being ____and ____?
Large diameter axons
Waht is a junction that mediates information transfer from a neuron to another neuron or to an effector cell?
Describe the chemical synapse process.
Electric signals reach axon terminal
converted to chemcal signal
chemical signal sent to synpatic neuron
chemical signal converted to electrical signal- gated potential
if it is strong enough it starts AP
What are the steps in removing neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft?
diffused away from synaptic cleft
T/F In post-synaptic potentials the strength is based on the amount of neurotransmitter and time in synapse?
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