What type of receptors monicor specific conditions in the body or the external environment?
The receptors, sensory neurons and sensory pathways constitute the ________ division of the nervous system.
_________ __________ connect our internal and external environments with the nervous system.
What are the 5 special senses:
Olfaction (smell), Vision (sight) Gustation (taste), equilibrium (balance), and hearing.
What is transduction?
A sensory receptor detects and arriving stimulus and translates it into an action potential to be conducted to the CNS
The translation of complex sensory information into meaningful patterns of action potentials.
Motor Pathway of the SNS:
Pre-central Gyrus - Upper Motor Neuron - Spinal Cord - Innervate Skeletal Muscle
Motor Pathway of the ANS:
Pre-central Gyrus - Ganglion - 1st pre-ganglionic neuron - 2nd pre-ganglionic neuron
Sensory information that arrrives at the CNS is routed according to the ____ and _____ of the stimulus.
Each labele line consists of acons carrying information about one _______.
Modality or type of stimulus.
The translation of complex sensory information into meaningful patterns of action petentials is called:
What type of sensory neurons are normally inactive but become active for a short time whenever a change occurs in the conditions they are monitoring?
Phasic receptors provide information about the _______ and ___________ of a stimulus.
Intensity; rate of change
Most of the incoming sensory information is processed in centers along the spinal cord or brain stem at the _________ level.
What are the 3 types of receptors for the general senses?
Exteroceptors, proprioceptors, and interoceptors
nociceptors may be sensitive to:
1) extremes of temperature, 2) machanical damage, 3) dissolved chemicals
Ceentral adaptation may reduce the ____ of the pain while pain receptors remain stimulated.
Endorphins and enkephalins are neuromodulators whose release inhibits activity along ____ ____ in the brain.
Thermoreceptors are ____ _____ _____ located in the dermis, in skeletal muscles in the liver and in the hypothalamus.
Free nerve endings
Temperature sensations are sent to the ____, ____, and to a lesser extent the ____.
retucular formation, thalamus, primary sensory cortex
Baroreceptors detect pressure changes in:
the walls of the blood vessles and portions of the digestive, reproductive and urinary tracts
Crude touch and pressure receptors provide poor localization because they have ____ receptive fields.
What are the 6 types of tactile receptos in the skin:
1) Free nerve endings, 2) root hair plexus, 3) Tactile discs, 4) Tactile corpuscles (meissner), 5) Lamellated corpuscles (pacinian), 6) Ruffini corpuscles
Wherever hairs are located, the nerve endings of the root hair plexus monitor:
distortions and movements across the body surface
Tactile corpuscles or Meisner corpuscles are fairly ____ structures and are most abundant in:
Large; eyelids, lips, nipples, external genitalia
What are the three major groups of proprioceptors:
Muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs, receptors in joint capsules
Golgi Tendon organs located at the junction between a _____ _____ and it's ____.
skeletal muscle; tendon
Joint capsules are richly innervated by free nerve endings that detect ____, ____, and movement at the ____.
pressure, tension, joint
Your sense of body position results from integration of information from:
Joint capsules, Muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs and receptors of the inner ear
Specialized Chemoreceptive neurons can detect small changes in the _____ of specific chemicals or compounds.
Cehmoreceptors do NOT send information to the ____ ____ ____, so we are not consciously aware of the sensations they provide.
Primary Sensory Cortex
What are the 3 major Somatic Sensory Pathways?
1) Posterior column pathway, 2) spinothalamic pathway, 3) spinocerebellar pathway
The Posterior Column Pathway carries sensation of:
fine touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception
The Posterior column pathway begins and ends:
begins: peripheral receptor; ends: sensory cortex of the cerebral hemispheres
The Ventral nuclei of the thalamus sorts arriving sensory information according to:
1) the nature of the stimulus, 2) the region of the body involved
the Processing of information in the Thalamus determines whether you perceive a given sensation as:
fine touch or pressure/vibration
The spinothalamic pathway provides conscious sensations of:
crude touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
In the Spinothalamic pathway, the sensory axons of the first-order synapse on second-order neurons within the:
Posterior Gray Horns
The axons of the spinothalamic interneurons cross to the opposite side of the spinal cord _____ ascending.
Spinothalamic tracts end at the third-order neurons in the ventral nucleus group of the:
Thalamus and then the Primary sensory cortex
The spinocerebellar patheway sends information about the position of ____ ____, ____ and ____ to the Cerebellum.
Skeletal muscles; tendons; joints
Spinocerebellar axons of first-order sensory neurons synapse on interneurons in the:
Dorsal Gray horns of the spinal cord
Visceral Sensory pathways carry visceral sensory information to the ____ ____, a large nucleus in the medulla oblongata.
The spinal nerves T1-L2 carry visceral sensory information provided by receptos in organs located btween the ____ and the ____ ____.
Diaphragm, pelvic cavity
The dorsal roots of the spinal nerves S2-S4 carry visceral sensory information from organs in the:
inferior portion of the large intestine
The Somatic Motor pathways always involve at least two motor neurons:
an upper motor neuron and a lower motor neuron
SNS - the upper motor neuron synapses on the lower motor neuron, which in turn innervates a single motor unit in a:
Destruction of or damage to a lower motor neuron eliminates ____ and ____ control over the innervated motor unit.
What are the 3 integrated motor pathways of the SNS?
Corticopsinal pathway, medial pathway and lateral pathway
axons in the corticobulbar tracts synapse on lower motor neurons in the motor nuclei of which cranial nerves?
III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, XI and XII
Corticotubular tracts provide conscious control over skeletal muscles tah tmove the:
eye, jaw, and face
The Corticospinal tracts synapse on lower motor neurosn in the:
anterior gray horns of the spinal cord
Corticospinal tracts are visible along the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata as a pair of thick bands called the:
The components of the medial pathway help control gross movement sof the:
trunk and proximal limb muscles
the components of the lateral pathway help control the:
distal limb muscles that perform more precise movements
The axons of the upper motor neurons in the medial and lateral pathways synapse on the same lower motor neurons innervated by the:
vestibulospinal Tract: Vestibular nuclei receive information over the Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII) and monitor the position and movement of the ____.
Tectospinal Tract: Axons in the tectospinal tracts direct reflexive changes in the position of the head, neck and upper limbs in response to:
bright lights, sudden movements, or loud noises
Reticulospinal Tracts: The reticular formation receives input from almost every ____ and ____ pathway.
The lateral pathway of the SNS is primarily concerned with the control of ____ ____ and the more precise movements of the ____ parts of the limbs.
muscle tone; distal
The Basal Nuclei provide the background patterns of movement involved in:
Voluntary motor activities
The basal nuclei establish patterns of movement via two majorb pathways. One groupof axons synapses on ____ neurons, and the second group of axons synapses in the ____ ____.
Thalamic; reticular formation
Sensations of fine touch, pressure, vibration and proprioception are carried in the:
Posterior Column pathway
"The Posterior Column pathway ; transmits information from mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors to the ____ and then to the primary sensory cortex of the ____ ____."
Thalamus; Cerebral Hemispheres
Sensations of Crude touch, pressure, pain and temperature are carried by the:
Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway
"The anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway transmits information from thermoreceptors and Nociceptors to the ____ and then to the primary sensory cortex of ____ ____."
Thalamus; Cerebral Hemispheres
Sensations about position of skeletal muscles, joints and tendons are carried to the ____ via the _____ pathway.
True/False: Information transmitted along the Spinocerebellar pathway does NOT reach our conscious awareness.
Somatic sensory pathways are pathways that transmit information from peripheral ____ receptors to the ____.
Sensory pathway route:
1) Somatic receptor, 2) 1st order neuron, 2) CNS, 3) 2nd order neuron, 4) Thalamus, 5) 3rd order neuron, 6) Primary sensory cortex of the cerebrum
What does the 3rd order neuron do:
Carries the signal from the Thalamus to the primary sensory cortex of the cerebrum