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Digestive system vocab
Terms in this set (29)
Taking in food.
Process of breaking down food into molecules small enough to be absorbed.
Digested food is taken in by cells.
Removal of undigested food from digestive system. Also called excretion.
Physical breakdown of food to increase surface area.
Molecular breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Where ingestion occurs.
Liquid secreted by the salivary glands that contains amylase and mucus.
Enzyme that starts starch (carbohydrate) digestion.
Upper part of throat. Junction of digestive system and respiratory system.
Flap of cartilage that covers airway (trachea) when food is swallowed.
Chewed clump of food that leaves the mouth.
Muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach.
Rhythmic series of smooth (involuntary) muscle contractions that push food through digestive system.
Elastic, muscular sac capable of stretching to hold up to 2 liters of food.
Hydrochloric Acid (HCl)
Breaks apart the cells in food, kills bacteria that is swallowed with food, and activates the enzyme pepsin.
Stomach enzyme that starts the chemical digestion of proteins.
Acidic liquid which leaves the stomach (food+pepsin+HCl).
Long, narrow tube where digestion is completed and absorption takes place.
First 10 inches of small intestine where chemical digestion of carbs, proteins and lipids are completed with the aid of the liver and pancreas.
Fingerlike projections or folds in the lining of small intestine to increase surface area for food absorption.
Absorbs water, eliminates feces = undigested food, bacteria, and other wastes.
The final section of the large intestine.
The opening at the end of the alimentary canal through which solid waste matter leaves the body.
Produces bile which is: secreted into duodenum (of small intestines) where it emulsifies fats
Emulsify = break into small drops.
Stored in the gallbladder not an enzyme. Filters the blood that comes from the small intestine before it is sent to general circulation.
Makes pancreatic juice which:
is secreted into duodenum, neutralizes stomach acids, and
contains enzymes which break down carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
A bitter greenish-brown alkaline fluid that aids digestion and is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
Proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions by lowering activation energy.
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