65 terms

Ch 10 - Democracy and Progress

From the "Modern World History: Patterns Of Interaction"
Reform Bill of 1832
an act of the British Parliament that changed many aspects of the electoral system. Gave more seats in the House of Commons to large cities and took away seats from 'rotten boroughs'.
House of Commons
one of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
Chartist Movement
In 19th century Britain where members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all MEN.
Third Republic
French proclaimed in 1870 after Louis Napolean's armies were defeated by German forces (under Prussia), republic said it would continue fighting; France was hopeless by 1871 but republic survived
Louisiana Purchase
The U.S., under Jefferson, bought the Louisiana territory from France, under the rule of Napoleon, in 1803. The U.S. paid $15 million for the Louisiana Purchase, and Napoleon gave up his empire in North America. The U.S. gained control of Mississippi trade route and doubled its size.
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
19th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
House of Lords
Members have inherited titles or been given them by the queen. Has little power
Women's Social and Political Union
the leading militant organisation campaigning for Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. It was the first group whose members were known as "suffragettes".
penal colony
a penal institution where prisoners are exiled (often located on an island from which escape is difficult or impossible)
Confederate States
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Women's suffrage in the US
achieved gradually, at state and local levels, during the 19th Century and early 20th Century, culminating in 1920 with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment
Women's suffrage in the UK (describe)
a national movement began in 1872; often driven by feminism and led to US suffrage, with many UK suffragists assisting and inspiring US suffragists
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
a movement of world Jewry that arose late in the 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine
one of the self-governing nations in the British Commonwealth
Iron Jawed Angels
nickname given to militant and nonmilitant suffragists
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to ltravel more than 800 miles to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Victorian Age
Reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain (1837-1901). The term is also used to describe late-nineteenth-century society, with its rigid moral standards and sharply differentiated roles for men and women and for middle-class and working-class people
hostility towardsJews as an ethnic or religious group, often accompanied by social,economic and political discrimination
assembly line
mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it
Rabbit Proof Fence
fence in australia to keep out rabbits, used camels to make
Dicken's View on education?
he portrayed the educational system as a cruel, crass, imagination-inhibition
Alice Paul
a suffragist; in 1907 she went to England an marched with suffragist in London. She was then jailed and went on hunger strikes- all to help the British women win the vote. Later, she returned home to support the cause of suffrage for American Women
Lucy Burns
an American suffragist and women's rights advocate. Advocate of civil disobedience. Picketed Wilson in the White House. She was a close friend of Alice Paul. Together, they formed the National Woman's Party
Emmeline Pankhurst
English woman-militant in her demands-heckled politicians and held public demonstrations
Emile Zola
defense attorney for Dreyfus
Abraham Lincoln
U.S. statesmen, 16th president. Led Union to victory in Civil War. Assassinated. Sometimes called "Honest Abe".
indigenous people of New Zealand
native people of Australia
James Cook
English navigator who claimed the east coast of Australia for Britain and discovered several Pacific islands (1728-1779)
Irish Protestants
citizens of Ireland that had Protestant or non-Catholic beliefs; often associated with England or "pets of state", and therefore hated by fellow Catholics
Irish Catholics
citizens of Ireland that had Catholic beliefs; often seen as rebels of England; resent England for the lack of aid during the Great Famine
Charles Darwin
English naturalist; studied the plants and animals of South America and the Pacific islands, and in his book On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) set forth his theory of evolution
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures
Henry Ford
1863-1947. American businessman, founder of Ford Motor Company, father of modern assembly lines, and inventor credited with 161 patents.
Wright Brothers
credited with the design and construction of the first practical airplane. They made the first controllable, powered heavier-than-air flight along with many other aviation milestones, also showing the beginning of the individual progressive spirit
English surgeon who was the first to use antiseptics (1827-1912)
French chemist and biologist whose discovery that fermentation is caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization (1822-1895)
Augustinian monk and botanist whose experiments in breeding garden peas led to his eventual recognition as founder of the science of genetics (1822-1884)
(Psychoanalysis) Austrian physician who approached psychology while trying to treat mental disorders--focused on the unconscious
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs (1849-1936) - think classical conditoning
Johnathan Swift
an Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for the Whigs, then for the Tories), poet and cleric; Gulliver's Travels
Queen Victoria
British Queen, under whose rule the British empire reached the height of its wealth and power, forced to accept a new, virtually powerless role after the Chartist movement
French army officer of Jewish descent whose false imprisonment for treason in 1894 raised issues of anti-semitism that dominated French politics until his release in 1906 (1859-1935)
Charles Dickens
English writer whose novels depicted and criticized social injustice (1812-1870)
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
14th Amendment
1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
consitutional monarchy
monarch inherits right to rule but is limited by laws and a law-making body elected by the people
the lawmaking body of British government
Victoria Woodhull
first woman to run for President and run a stock brokerage
of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation
originating where it is found
serialized form
a form of book and story production where the story is told or communicated in segments; a strategy used by authors to entice readers
any of several related languages of the Celts in Ireland and Scotland
Penal Code
applied to the Irish, Catholic clergy banished, Catholics were forbidden to vote or sit in Irish parliament, Catholics forbidden to teach
Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829
gave Irish many rights back
Great Famine
plants fungus on potatoes, over one million died and fled, resentment towards Brits grew
Irish Republican Army
a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland
Italian electrical engineer known as the father of radio (1874-1937)
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
Pierre and Marie discovered radium and polonium. expanded Becquerel's work on radioactivity
von Ranke
Established history as a profession, it was important to present the past as it was and go to the sources