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Mass Media Final
Terms in this set (100)
Main reason for the internet
can be traced back to the Cold War when scientists and military personnel began working on the technology to ensure that people would be able to communicate in the event of a nuclear attack.
1. Enabled any type of computer running with operating system to communicate
2. Delivery of information was rerouted if computer or network was unavailable
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
created by president Truman to ensure U.S. would never again be taken by surprise by new technologies (after Sputnik was launched by the Soviet Union)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
Cuban Missle Crisis
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
What was the original internet?
A computer network developed as a means of communication between research laboratories and universities during the nuclear war. It was the predecessor to the Internet.
used @ to combine username w/ host computer, invented email
Signaled the Net's marketability
Led to personal computers that were smaller and more affordable
Became the standard for transmitting communication data rapidly
Fiber optic cables
In 1986 linked universities and encouraged private investments and caused dramatic increase in internet use
National science foundation network
Created the World Wide Web, html, and gave it to the world for free
Tim Berners Lee
when consumers started getting on board with the internet
mass medium stage
what was the growing conflict of the internet
should the public, non profit nature of the internet be maintained, or should it be commercialized for profit?
who were some original internet service providers?
American Online (now AOL): first big provider
Proprietary Web System
critiques images of women in popular culture, blogger and feminist critique
Controlling the internet are connected to what 3 issues?
The security of personal and private information
Appropriateness of online materials
Accessibility and openness of the internet
Refers to the growing contrast between "information haves" and "information have-nots"; A worldwide gap giving advantage to those with access to technology
Refers to the principle that every website and every user has the right to the same internet network speed and access
-May be the biggest threat to the
Internet's democratic potential
-Internet's potential for widespread use by all could be partially preempted by narrower commercial interests.
emphasis on the maximizing of profit
What are the three phases of the production process
The project is developed through the script process
Finances are obtained
Personnel who work on the project are hired
Cinematography & Videography
Executed by Cinematographer or Director of Photography (DP)
It can be thought of as the coordination of one shot with the next
Editor- puts film together in such a way that the filmmaker's interpretation or story is brought to life in a coherent fashion
Often the editor works alongside the director during this
The use of the edges of the film/video frame to select and compose what will be visible on screen
One continuous run of the camera
The arrangement of elements in a frame
To make composition more dynamic, it is better to try to break a frame into thirds rather than halves
rule of thirds
if following the rule of thirds when shooting a long shot, the person's head should be
in the top third of the frame
if following the rule of thirds in a Medium close up or close up, eyes should be on or around
the top line
Why do people use the rule of thirds?
-Our eyes go naturally to the intersection of points on screen
-Place the important parts of the photo along the lines or at their intersection points
Allows viewers to interact with it more naturally
Building blocks of editing
-A segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and space or that uses cross cutting
-shows two or more simultaneous motions
a group of related consecutive scenes
splice or connect the end of one shot to another
Editing together any two shots through similarity and difference, or purely pictorial qualities of those two shots
graphic relations between shot A & B
Russian filmmaker who conceived important editing techniques
-Found that viewers would infer-deduce or conclude-meaning based on the arrangements of shots
editing helps construct the film space (Kuleshov)
Spacial Relations between shot A & B
Editing can control the time of action denoted in film
temporal relations between shot A & B
shot transitions that omit parts of an event, causing the shortening in plot and story duration
elipsis (temporal relations example)
The process of gathering information and making narrative reports that offer selected frames of reference that help people make sense of important events, political issues, cultural trends, prominent people, and unusual happenings in everyday life
conducts surveys asking people to identify
1. Their main source of news
2. The news source that they perceive to be the most credible
Main events that television news became prevelant
1. JFK assassination
2. Civil Rights Movement
3. Vietnam War
Vast network of telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and satellite systems designed to link ad carry computer information worldwide
graphical interface to navigate the web
Offers users connection to the internet
-American Online (now AOL): first big one
-Proprietary Web System
Internet Service Provider
Anita Sarkeesian's experiences after using social media to advocate for gender equality in gaming represents a clear example of why at times sites such as Twitter and Instagram can be described as
Unethical gathering of data by online purveyors of content and merchandise
-Opt in,opt out policies
T/F: Though TV news cameras captured footage of the brutality that Civil Rights protestors endured and broadcast it into peoples' homes, it was sheer luck that the press was present in the various locations to record those images.
T/F: In post-production, an editor often works alongside the director and has the task of putting a movie together in such a way that the filmmaker's interpretation or story is brought to life in a coherent fashion.
-consistent screen directions
-consistency of relative positions in the frame
180 degree rule
T/F: The JFK assassination played out on TV news like a scripted TV drama defined by underlying themes about race and religion and that provided closure for a nation that demanded justice for the slaying of its president.
T/F: During the Vietnam War, TV news continued to mature as a result of technological advancement such as videotape replay, color, and portable cameras.
editing shots together to create the illusion that they are of the same space
editing shots of different people together to create the illusion that they are of the same person
-Maintain political neutrality
-Observe prevailing standards of decency and good taste
-Use documentary reporting practices which rely on physical evidence
-Use standardized formats to package the news
-Train reporters as generalists instead of specialists
-Use editorial review to enforce standards
Standards of Objectivity
Determined Four subjective values shape news judgements
What are the four subjective values Herbert Gans determined shape news judgements
-Small Town Pastoralism
One of four subjective values: comparison and judgment of other countries or cultures on how they live up to American practices and values
One of four subjective values: assumption that business people compete for "to create increases prosperity for all" rather than maximize profits
One of four subjective values: favoring the small over the large and rural over urban
Small town pastoralism
One of four subjective values: focus on personal triumph over large organizations or institutions
content, articles, videos that present made up or false information
-use "humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule to expose and criticize prevailing immorality or foolishness."
-imitate legitimate news sites but contain fake news stories for the purposes of parody. The most popular satirical news site is The Onion.
What does "Shattered Glass" reveal about journalistic credibility
Fact checking in written publications can be subject to flaws
The total communication strategy conducted by a person, a government, or and organization. Attempting to reach and persuade an audience to adopt a point of view
Difference between advertising and PR
Companies pay for advertising
"No such thing as bad publicity"
Used gross exaggeration
Staged events to secure newspaper coverage for clients
-Considered one of the founders of modern PR
-Understood the importance of sentiment
-Taught corporate clients that honesty and directness were better PR practices than deceptive tactics
-Opened 1st PR firm in early 1900s
Ivy Ledbetter Lee
-Taught first PR class
-Nephew of Sigmund Freud
-First to apply findings of psychology and sociology to PR
-Wrote 1st PR Textbook: Crystalizing PR
-Torches of Freedom (Women Smoking cigarettes)
-social media analytic tools
formulating the message
-Video news releases (VNRs)
-Public service announcements (PSA)
Conveying the message
Why is advertising important in media
It is the key source of revenue in all mass-market print and commercial broadcast media
-global head of air bnb
-studied why people join cults and applied what he learned to brands
-concluded people want to be a part of a certain brand for a reason- They need to belong, they want to make meaning of the world, and they need other people
Why did the FDA come to be?
Fraudulent print advertising was being put on medicine bottles and it came to be to regulate it
-hidden or disguised messages
-NO more effective than regular ads
Using questionnaires VALS researchers measured psychological factors and divided consumers into types by primary consumer motivations
thinkers, achievers, and experiencers
Values and Lifestyles Strategy
What are the categories of consumers based on Values and Lifestyles Strategy (don't fit neatly into one category)
Thinkers- plan, research, consider
Achievers- me first, my family first
Experiencers- want everything, trends
Advertisers want to find out who you are and
who you are going to be
attempts to understand, explain, and predict the effects of mass media on individuals and society
Goal of media relations
-Media shoots effects directly into unsuspecting victims
-Media consumers are passive
-Whatever the media tells us we just believe it
-early media theory
Researchers studied the ways in which people used the media to satisfy various emotional or intellectual needs
early media theory model
Uses and gratification model
T/F: Because of net neutrality Serial remains easily accessible for audiences interested listening to the case of Adnan Syed.
T/F: Since Sarah Koenig had conversations with Adnan Syed while examining his case, their relationship represents a conflict of interest.
Multiple Choice: Adnan was denied bail because he is Muslim, making him a victim of a common subjective news value known as _______________.
T/F: In bringing Serial to life, Sarah Koenig violates standards of objectivity by failing to us documentary practices that rely upon physical evidence and reporting as a specialist instead of a generalist.
Had Sarah Koenig used an actor to play Adnan in Serial without informing listeners, they might infer that it was really him making it an aural example of _______________.
One of many theories that suggest link between mass media and behavior
Some argue violent programming leads to violent behavior
social learning theory
four steps of social learning theory
attention, retention, motor reproduction, motivation
tested social learning theory with the bobo doll experiment
aims to make you connect the product being offered to a desirable set of values or traits. These traits range from positive ideals to the avoidance of negative ones
-Focuses on how people make meaning, articulate values, comprehend reality, and arrange experiences through cultural symbols
-Focuses on how mass communication shapes and is shaped by history
Cultural studies approach
refers to the tendency of people to remain silent when they feel that their views are in opposition to the majority view on a subject
spiral of silence
an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
What is the consumer motivation of "Thinkers" in the values and lifestyles strategy?
plan, research, consider
What is the consumer motivation of "achievers" in the values and lifestyles strategy?
me first, my family first
What is the consumer motivation of "expieriencers" in the values and lifestyles strategy?
want everything, trends
When it comes to the consumer lifestyle strategies, does a consumer's motivation fit neatly into one category?
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