Anthropology Exam 2

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Characteristics of a mammal
Homeothermic (warm blooded)
Viviparous (live birth)
Mammary glands in both sexes (nurse young)
Hair/fur
Breathe air
What are the phases of human development and what happens in each of them?
Prenatal - divided into three trimesters, then birth

Postnatal - five stages, which are neonatal/infancy, childhood, juvenile, and adolescence

Adult - most of the body's efforts directed to maintaining tissues and organs through cell reproduction/replacement
Prenatal trimesters
First - starts with a zygote, different tissues and organs start to form. Most susceptible to disruption and disease

Second - rapid growth, further development of organs. Placenta is fully functioning

Third - more growth. Ability to grasp, respond to light, touch, and sound. Lungs fully develop
What is homeostasis and senescence?
Homeostasis - the tendency to maintain a stable, relatively constant internal environment (ex: temperature)

Senescence - the gradual deterioration of functional characteristics
Robert Knox & Friedrich Blumenbach
Knox - book called "The Races of Man"

Blumenbach - establishes taxonomy of human races and states that human race is static. "Taxonomy of the Human Race"
Unilineal Evolution
All cultures pass through similar stages of development. Those that are not as advanced must have had some sort of arrested development. The idea that western society is the absolute pinnacle of social evolution
Biological Determinism
The idea that behavior, intelligence, morals, disposition are controlled by biology alone
How was race as a phenotype disproved? Who disproved it?
Franz Boas - calculating the ratio of head length to head breadth (cephalic index) shows that racial lines are not static
How was race as a genotype disproved? Who disproved it?
Robert Lewontin - found that there are no genetic boundaries based on racial concept.
Genetic variation prevalent in and between groups of people
What is the name that we assign to human variation today?
Cline - the changes in phenotype from one population to the next.
Usually associated with geographical change and influenced by environment
Genetic adaptation
Inheritable and non-reversible. Includes hair color, hair type, skin cool (affects vitamin D and skin cancer)
Allen Bergmann Rule
Relation between surface area and heat adaptation

Bergmann's Rule - heat-adapted mammals will have more surface area and reverse for cold adapted mammals

Allen's Rule - heat adapted mammals will have longer limbs than cold-adapted ones
Cultural adaptation
Non inherited and reversible. Includes clothing, eating habits/utensils, and housing
Physiological: Developmental
Non inherited and not reversible. Includes foot binding to alter development of feet, barrel chested for high altitudes, malnutrition affects development negatively, and positive nutrition affects development positively
Physiological
Not inherited and can be reversible. Includes over nutrition (obesity), getting acclimated to higher altitudes, adapting to hot or cold climates
What is the phylogenetic tree? What are the branches we fall into?
"The tree of life"
Domain
Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes. Eukarya makes up all organisms with a nucleus (us)

Kingdom
Animalia

Phylum
Chordata

Class
Mammalia

Order
Primates

Family
Hominidae

Genus
Homo

Species
Sapiens
Homologous vs. Analogous Traits
Homologous - similar looking features in organisms are a result of shared ancestry (wing of a bat and arm of a human)

Analogous - features in organisms that although evolved to serve the same function (CONVERGENT evolution) are not from the same ancestor. Ex: wings on insects and bats
Ancestral Traits
Traits inherited by two organisms from a relatively distant common ancestor. Ex: vertebrae that protects the spine, mammary glands
Gradistic and Cladistic
Gradistic - grouped based on general similarity in appearance and shared ancestral traits. Does NOT look at DNA

**Cladistic - grouped based on derived traits. Looks at DNA. If a cluster of species displays a similar derived trait - clade. Similarity in genes
K-Selectivity and R-Selectivity
K-selective:
Long time until able to reproduce
Higher parental care
Long lifespans
Large body size
Fewer offspring
Ex: elephant, humans, whales

R-selective: opposite. Ex: insects, bacteria, rodents, fish
Why study non-human primates?
They are our closest living kin and we share a common ancestry. Offers a window into our own evolutionary past
What is a primate?
Three tendencies were defined by Sir Wilfrid E. Le Gros Clark:

Primates are adapted to life in trees

Dietary plasticity - primates can eat a wide variety of food

Parental investment - primates spend a lot of time caring for offspring
Anatomical traits in primates
Spinal cord, forward facing eyes (arboreal hypothesis means we need depth perception for tree life, we need to see our prey)

Generalized dentition (reflects different diets, tooth comb for grooming, Y5 molars, diastema which shows honing complex

Petrosal bulla (skeleton protects the inner ear and helps with balance)

Post-orbital bar (allows for muscle attachments around the eye, ensures good vision)

Unique hands (opposable thumbs, greater traction, nails instead of claws), can be bipedal or quadrupeds
Why live in social groups?
Access to mates, access to food, avoiding predators, survival
Solitary
Common in early primates. Males occupy territories that overlap a number of female territories
Monogamy
Male and female live in a pair bond for an extended period of time. Little competition, little sexual dimorphism
Polygyny
One or more males and more than one female. Complex social interactions
One-male polygyny
One male lives with many females. Other males live as extra-group males, alone, or in all male bachelor group. High sexual dimorphism. Ex: silverback gorillas
Multi-male polygyny
Males compete for priority of access to females instead of sole access. Dominance hierarchy. High sexual dimorphism
Fission-fusion polygyny
No well defined groups. Individuals migrate between defined geographical communities. Males and females form bonds with members of the same sex (BFFs). Ex: chimps
Polyandry
One female lives in a reproductive or social unit with multiple males. Extremely rare in nonhuman primates
Suborder: Strepsirrhines (prosimians)
Rhinarium, long snout, tapetum lucid to enhance night vision, post orbital bar, smaller brain size, tooth comb
Infraorder: Lemuriformes (lemurs and lorises)
Lemurs:
Madagascar
Variation and ecological niches
Sympatric speciation - adaptive speciation that occurs in one environment
Suborder: Haplorhini
No rhinarium, short snout, post-orbital closure, no tooth comb, large brain to body size ratio
Infraorder: Platyrrhine (New World)
Broad lateral nostrils, utilized island hopping, claw like nails
2.1.3.3
2 incisors, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars
Infraorder: Catarrhines (Old World)
Onwards narrow nostril, sexual dim
2.1.2.3

OW monkeys, apes, and humans
CP3 complex - morphology found in the lower premolar that hones the upper canines
Cercopithecoids (Old World Monkeys)
All have tails, stub or no thumb, ischial callosities on rear, cheek pouches
Hominids (Apes and Man)
No tails, Y5 molars, knuckle walking, culture, warfare
Crepuscular (ring-tailed lemur)
Primary activities are done during dusk and dawn
Arboreal quadrupedalism (ruffed lemurs)
Moving around on all fours in trees
Cathemeral
Active in equal times in the night and day
Folivore
Eats leaves
Prehensile tail
Capable of grasping
Diurnal
Sleeps at night, active during the day
What are the 4 threats facing primates?
Hunting, deforestation, pet trade, overlapping resources
What are fossils and how are they formed?
Preserved remains of once living things, often buried in the ground. The remains have been fully or partially transformed into petrified rock.
Phylogeny
The evolutionary relationship and biological changes within and between organisms
Taphonomy
The study of what happens to an organism from the time of death to the time of discovery
Principles of Stratigraphy
Principle of original horizontality - layers of rock are laid down parallel to the earth's surface and thus horizontally

Principle of superposition - older layers are laid down first and then covered by younger layers

Principle of cross-cutting relationship - a geological feature must exist before another feature can cut through it
What is GTS?
Geological Time Scale - categories of time into which Earth's history is divided into
What are the categories (Era, Eon, etc.)?
Phanerozoic EON - include paleozoic, mesozoic (mammals and amphibians) and cenozoic (primates) ERAS

Cenozoic era - tertiary and quaternary PERIODS

Quaternary period - include pilicene, pleistocene, holocene EPOCHS
Relative dating
Established the age of a fossil relative to other materials found in the areas above and below it.

There's also fluorine dating and paleomagnetic dating
Absolute dating
Radiometric dating uses known decay rates of radioactive isotopes and measures the half life. There's also Carbon H-dating. Must be organic materials.

K argon to Argon/Argon - doesn't have to be organic and can date back to 4.5 billion years
Dendrochronology (absolute)
Uses the stop and start of growth yearly in trees to develop a chronology. First numerical method. Limited in years and location
When did mammals first appear?
Mesozoic era 248-65 mya
Angiosperm Radiation Hypothesis
Primate adaptations for gaining better access to fruits
Visual Predation Hypothesis
Most predators have eyes in front of their head
Proprimates (Plesiadapiforms)
A separate order from primates
First primate?
Euprimate during Eocene epoch
First possible ancestor to all primates (what genus survived)?
Carpolestes
What was the temperature like during the Eocene?
Very warm
What family is agreed to be the ancestor for haplorrhines?
Omomyidae
What family is agreed to be the ancestor for strepsirhines?
Adapidae
IDA fossil
May be related to strepsihines or haplorhines, unsure of which
What is bransella?
Earliest new world monkey found in Bolivia, 2.1.3.3, 26 mya
First monkey-like primate?
Aegyptopithecus
First ape-like primate?
Proconsul
What are the three theories for how monkeys ended up in the new world?
-Evolved from a North American haplorhine and migrated south
-Migrated across the Atlantic via island hopping
-Migrated through Antartica

Last two are most likely
Who is the ancestor to Orangutans?
Thought the ancestor was Sivapithecus but it is Khoratpithecus
What is the biggest primate that has ever lived?
Gigantopithecus
A group of organisms with similar adaptations is called what?
Genus
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