Anthro Exam 2
Language is always changing.
What is a key feature of language that explains why anthropologists are always interested in studying it?
Do chimpanzee call systems include displacement and cultural transmission?
What is the ability to describe things and events that are not present called?
The ability to create new expressions by combining other expressions.
What does the term productivity refer to with regard to language?
Recent research on the origin of language suggests that a key mutation might have something to do with it. What is the name of this mutation?
The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions.
The study of the forms in which sounds combine to form words.
What does the term morphology refer to?
Its degree of complexity.
The lexicon of a language is?
The arrangement and order of words into sentences.
What does the term syntax refer to?
He was referring to his hypothesis that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language, so that all languages have a common structural basis.
What did Chomsky mean when he discussed universal grammar?
The minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in language.
What are phonemes?
Changes in American economy, society, and culture have had no impact on the use of color terms, or any terms, for that matter.
What do studies on the differences between female and male Americans in regard to the color terms they use suggest? (Think Sapir and Whorf)
The influence of language on thought.
What did Sapir and Whorf study?
The specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups.
What is a focal vocabulary?
Speech in its social context.
What does a sociolinguist study?
Are sociolinguists more interested in the rules that govern language rather than the actual use of language in every day life?
Variations in speech due to different contexts or situations.
What is style shifting?
The existence of high and low dialects within a single language.
What is diglossia?
Term used to convey or imply a status difference between the speaker and the person being referred to or addressed.
What does the term honorific refer to?
In a stratified society, even peopl ewho do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as a standard or superior.
What was Bourdieu referring to when he discussed symbolic domination with regard to language?
Identification with, and feeling part of a cultural tradition and exclusion from other cultural traditions.
What does ethnicity refer to?
Any position, no matter what the prestige, that someone occupies in a society.
What does status refer to?
Status that people have little or no choice about occupying.
What is ascribed status?
Has the concept of race been discredited in biology?
Human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop such discrete groups.
Why do anthropologists believe that human races do not exist?
An organism's evident traits, its manifest biology.
What does phenotype refer to?
The classification of racial types is an arbitrary and culturally specific process.
An examination of racial taxonomies around the world indicates what?
That phenotypical similarities and differences don't neccessarily have a genetic basis.
What did Franz Boas find when he examined changes in skull form among the children of Europeans who had migrated to the U.S.?
This means that race is socially constructed, not biologically determined.
Why is it important to understand that racial categories are based upon perceptions of phenotypic features, and not genotype?
A biological similarity such as skin color is also the result of natural selection working among different populations that face similar environmental changes.
According to Kottak, what is skin color the result of?
Because natural selection continues today.
Why do recent East Asian immigrants have higher incidence of rickets and osteoporosis than the general British population?
Explanatory approaches to human biological diversity.
Kottak provides explanations to explain skin color variation, what are these explanations called?
Is race a cultural category?
The arbitrary rule that automatically places the children of a union between members of different socioeconomic groups in the less-privileged group.
What does the term hypodescent refer to?
Racial classification is a political issue.
Why have La Raza and the NAACP opposed a multiracial category on the census?
Is race determined at birth in Brazil?
The policies and practices that harm a group and its members.
What is discrimination?
The physical destruction of an ethnic or religious group through mass murder.
What is genocide?
The use of force by a dominant group to compel a minority to adopt the dominant culture.
What is forced assimilation?
The reliance on available natural resources for their subsistence, rather than controlling the reproduction of plants and animals.
What do all foraging economies share?
That there is an association between the economy of societies and their features.
What do Cohen's adaptive strategies suggest?
Are permanent villages a characteristic of band-level societies?
Is egalitarianism a characteristic of foraging societies?
Societies become more egalitarian.
What does not occur as you move along the cultivating continuum?
Deforestation, water pollution, and reduction of ecological diversity.
What are characteristics of intensive agriculture?
The way a society's social relations are organized to produce the labor necessary for generating the society's subsistence and energy needs.
What is a mode of production?
A society's major productive resources, such as land, labor, technology, and captial.
What are the means, or factors, of production?
The economic system cannot easily be separated from the other systems, such as kinship.
How are nonindustrial economic systems "embedded" in society?
Are economic relationships embedded in states?
What motivates people in different cultures to produce, distribute or exchange, and consume?
What questions are economic anthropologists concerned with answering?
As rural people who produce food for their own subsistence, but also sell their surpluses.
How does Kottak define peasants?
Is kin-based generalized reciprocity associated with the market principle?
The characteristic form of exchange in egalitarian societies.
What is generalized reciprocity a characteristic of?
Is profit-maximizing a human universal?
Can bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states be studied as self-contained forms of political organization?
Foraging economies are usually associated with what type of political organization?
Stereotype of culturally deprived people forced by states, colonialism, or world events into marginal environments.
What does Susan Kent warn against?
They can illustrate links between a foraging economy and other aspects of society and culture, such as their sociopolitical organization.
Why study modern day foragers?
Do the Inuit use traditional courts of law to handle disputes?
A treacherous feast.
What is the Inuit song battle sometimes the occasion for?
Do political leaders in foraging bands have authority?
A person who creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others.
What is a big man?
A group uniting all men or women born during a certain span of time.
What is an age set?
What kind of society is stratum endogamy most likely to occur?
What kind of society is socially stratified?
Wealth, power, and prestige.
Weber identified three related dimensions of social stratification, what are they?
What is the most important factor in determining an individual's power and prestige?
A stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting the "naturalness" of domination.
What is hegemony?