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Theology Chapter 2 Test
Terms in this set (53)
What concepts did Immanuel Kant create
The concepts of "good will' and "duty"
What were Immanuel Kant's three principles
Categorical Imperative, Hypothetical Imperative, Autonomy and heteronomy of will
What gives an action moral worth?
an action has moral worth only when performed by an agent who possesses a good will
What gives an agent good will?
only if moral obligation based on universally valid norm is the actions sole motive.
What is Duty
All persons must act not only in accordance with, but for the sake of obligation.
an act must be done from obligation in order to have moral worth.
an actions moral value is due to the maxim from which it is performed rather than to its success in realizing some desired end or purpose.
obligation is the necessity of an action performed from respect for the law.
What is the supreme principle or moral law
What is the Categorical Imperative?
Act only in according to that maxim, you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.
If I want this then I must do/have this first
What are Maxims
Maxims according to Kant are subjective rules that guide action. All actions have maxims
What are laws?
Rules of conduct that rational beings lay down for themselves in the light of reason.
What is Deontology
Moral tradition centered around doing your duty
According to Kant when does a person possess a "good will"
When they do their duty because it is their duty and not for any other reason
According to Kant who is worthy of moral praise?
Only those who possess a good will.
What does Kant believe matters more motivation or results?
What makes an act moral?
if it authorized by a rule that can be universalized.
The Practical Imperative
a universal rules that covers all possible cases. always treat humans as an end and never as a means only.
What is treating a person as an end?
Treat him/her as having inherent value and dignity.
What is treating a person as a means only?
Treating him/her as having value only s you can use him/her to achieve some goal.
duties everyone ha to everyone else at all times.
Duties that some people have to other people at some times. Duties to protect, defend and promote the well being of some person.
One may do direct harm to an innocent person to the extent that it is necessary to do such harm to prevent harm being done to the innocent.
The Principle of double effect
If an action has two effects one good and the other evil one may perform the action if....
1) There is no other way to achieve the good...
2) The evil is not intended...
3) The good effect is at least as good as the evil is evil.
One may to direct harm to a NON-innocent person to the extent it is necessary to do such harm.
What is an intention?
a goal or purpose towards which we are directing ourselves.
What make our actions meaningful?
How does an external act shape us?
The intentionality determines how it shapes us.
What is the western civilization idea of a goal?
Each person has one ultimate goal that takes precedence over others.
Goal directed activity by a person who understands the goal of the activity.
What is the Object of an act?
What is actually done? Should be named in simplest terms.
What is the intention of an act?
The goal or purpose of an act? (Terms "in order to" "because" "to"
What are the circumstances of an act?
features of the situation, which although secondary help determine morality.
You are not free when you are forced by some influence or state of affairs to do something that you yourself would not want to do.
What is Freedom?
The capacity to understand and internalize as our own the actions we do.
Freedom of Independence
as long as your actions are truly taken as your own, you are fully free.
Freedom of Excellence
Being fully free depends not only on whether the action is your own. Being fully free depends on what you choose.
What is a moral act?
A human act, one performed with knowledge and free will. Always morally good or bad.
What is to be fully free?
Not only to choose, but to choose good.
What does Jesus stress about the law as opposed to What?
Jesus stressed the intent and spirit of the law rather than strict adherence to "letter of the law"
What does Jesus assume that his followers will continue to do?
Their religious practices, almsgiving, fasting, but will do it humbly and with pure motives.
What is the golden rule?
Do to others what you would have them to do you?
What is a human act?
actions that proceed from insight into the nature and purpose of ones doing and from concept of free will.
What are acts of man?
actions performed without intervention of intellect or free will?
Elements of a human act?
- done with full knowledge and deliberation
-the person is free to do it
-the person does it intentionally
What is Freedom?
the power to choose between two or more courses action without being forced to take one or the other by anything except our own will.
Every human act is what?
A Free Act
What is Authentic Freedom?
is not "the right to say and do anything" but to do the good and truth.
The Whole Moral life revolves around what?
The use of freedom.
What is the abuse of freedom?
the origin of guilty conduct
What is Voluntary act?
the act which proceeds from an intrinsic principle with knowledge of the end.
When are Human Actions good?
when they have the moral perfections and fullness required by the object of the actions.
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