Beekeeping

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Terms in this set (...)

Abdomen
The posterior or third region of the body of the bee that encloses the honey stomach, stomach, intestines, sting and the reproductive organ.
Alarm Pheromone
(iso-pentyl acetate) a chemical substance which smells similar to artificial banana flavoring, released near the worker bee's sting, which alerts the hive to attack.
American Foulbrood
Disease of the hive.
antenna
one of two sensory organs located on the head of the bee, which enable smell and taste
Attendants
worker bees that are attending the Queen. When used in the context of queens in cages, the workers that are added to the cage to care for the queen.
Balling
Worker bees surrounding a queen either to confine her because they reject her or to confine her to protect her
Bearding
When bees congregate on the front of the hive
bee bread
Fermented pollen stored in the hive and used to feed brood
Bee Space
3/8 inch of space which permits free passage for a bee but too small to encourage comb building and too large to induce propolizing
Black Scale
refers to dried pupa, which died of American Foulbrood
Bottom Board
The floor of a bee hive
brood
Immature bees not yet emerged from their cells; egg, larvae, or pupae
Brood Chamber
the part of the hive in which the brood is reared
Burr comb
Small pieces of comb made as connecting links between combs or between a frame and the hive itself; also called brace comb.
Capped brood
Immature bees whose cells have been sealed over with a brown wax by a worker bee
Castes
The three types of bees that comprise the adult population of a honey bee colony; workers, drones and queen
cell
the hexagonal compartment of a honey comb
Chunk honey
Honey in the comb, but not in sections, frequently cut and packed into jars then filled with liquid honey
cluster
the thickest part of the bees on a warm day, usually the core of the brood nest, and queen. On a 50 degree F day where all of the bees are located.
colony
the aggregate of worker bees, drones, queen and developing brood living together as a family unit in a hive or dwelling
Comb
the wax portion of a colony in which eggs are laid, honey and pollen are stored shaped like hexagons
Comb foundation
commercially made structure consisting of thin sheets of beeswax with cell bases of worker cells embossed on both sides to induce the bees to build a particular sized cell
Comb honey
honey in the wax combs, usually produced and sold as a separate unit.
Creamed Honey
honey that has undergone controlled granulation to produce a finely textures candied or crystallized honey which spreads easily at room temperature. this usually involves adding fine "seed" crystals and keeping at 57 degrees F
Cut-Comb Honey
Comb honey cut into various sizes, the edges drained, and the pieces wrapped or packed individually
deep
a box that is 9 5/8" deep and the frame is 9 1/4 deep. (Langstroth Deep)
Deformed wing virus
a virus spread by the Varroa mite that causes crumpled looking wings on fuzzy newly emerged bees
double story or double deeps
referring to a beehive wintering in two deeps
drawn combs
full depth comb ready for brood or nectar with the cell walls drawn out by the bees, completing the comb as opposed to foundation that has not been worked by the bees and has no cell walls yet
Drifting
The movement of bees that have lost their location and enter other hives; common when hives are placed in long straight rows where returning foragers from the center hives tend to drift to the row ends.
Drone
a male bee that develops from an unfertilized egg and functions only to fertilize eggs from the queen. Haploid.
Drone comb
Comb that is made up of cells larger than worker brood.
DRONE CONGREGATING AREA (DCA)
A specific area to which drones fly waiting for virgin queens to pass by; it is not known how or when they are formed, but drones return to the same spots year after year.
Eight Frame
Boxes that were made to take eight frames. usually 13 3/4" and 14" wide depending on the manufacturer
Eggs
first phase in the bee life cycle, usually laid by the queen, resembles a grain of rice. It is enclosed with a flexible shell or chorion 1.6 mm long
end bar
the piece of the frame that is on the ends of the frame. In other words the vertical pieces of the frame.
Entrance reducer
A notched wooden strip used to regulate the size of the bottom entrance.
European foulbrood (EFB)
an infectious brood disease of honey bees caused by the bacterium Melissococcus (formally Streptococcus) pluton.
Extracted honey
Honey removed from the combs usually by means of centrifugal force (an extractor) in order to leave the comb in tact
Feeder
aka Divisional Board Feeder or Frame Feeder; wooden or plastic compartment which is hung in a hive like a frame and contains sugar syrup to feed bees.
Fermenting Honey
Honey which contains too much water (greater thatn 20%) in which yeast has grown and caused it to turn into carbon dioxide, water and alcohol. (Mead)
Feral bees or queen
"wild" bees. Some use this term for survivor bees that were captured and used to raise queens meaning they were feral as opposes to being feral
Fertilized
eggs laid by a mated queen; they were fertilized with sperm stored in the queens spermatheca, in the process of being laid.
festooning
The activity of young bees, engorged with honey, hanging on to each other and secreting beeswax.
forage
natural food source of bees (nectar or pollen) from wild and cultivated flowers; or the act of gathering food
Foragers
worker bees which are usually 21 or more days old and work outside to collect nectar, pollen, water or propolis; also called field bees
Foundation
thin sheets of beeswax embossed or stamped with the base of a worker cells on which bees will construct a complete comb (called a drone comb); comb foundation
frame
rectangular structure of wood designed to hold honey comb, consisting of a top bar, two end bars and a bottom bar; usually spaced a bee-space apart
gloves
leather, cloth or rubber gloves worn while inspecting bees
grafting
removing a worker larva from its cell and placing it in an artificial queen cup in order to have it reared into a queen
grafting tool
a needle or probe used for transferring larvae in grafting of queen cells
Guard bees
Worker bees about three weeks old, which have their maximum amount of alarm pheromone and venom; they challenge all incoming bees and other intruders.
hemolymph
insect 'blood'
Hive
a structure made for bees to live in
Hive body
A wooden box containing frames. Usually referring to the size of box being used for brood
HIVE STAND
A structure serving as a base support for a beehive; it helps in extending the life of the bottom board by keeping it off damp ground.
Hive tool
A flat metal device with a curved scraping surface at one end and a flat blade at the other; used to open hives, pry apart and scrape frames.
honey bee
Apis mellifera
Honey Crop
harvested honey
Nectar flow or Honey flow
A time when enough nectar-bearing plants are blooming such bees can store a surplus of honey
Honey Supers
box of frames used for honey production
Hot
Bees that are overly defensive or outright aggressive
Inner cover
An insulating cover fitting on top of the top super but underneath the outer cover, with an oblong hole in the center.
Italian Bees
a common race of bees, Apis Mellifera ligustica, with brown and yellow bands, from Italy; usually gentle and productive, but tend to rob
Landing Board
a small platform at the entrance of the hive for the bees to land on before entering the hive
Rev. LL Langstroth
A Philadelphia native and minister (1810-1895), he lived for a time in Ohio where he continued his studies and writing of bees; recognized the importance of the bee space, resulting in the development of the movable frame hive (in 1852)
Langstroth
Common bee hive for bee keepers where frames hang next to each other.
Larva, open
the second developmental stage of a bee, starting the 4th day when the egg is laid until it is capped on the 9th or 10th day
Larva Capped
The second developmental stage of a bee, ready to pupate or spin its cocoon around the 10th day
Laying worker
Worker bees which lay eggs in a colony hopelessly queenless; they only lay drones
pollen basket or leg baskets
a flattened depression surrounded by curved spines located on the outside of the tibiae of the bees' hind legs and adapted for carrying flower pollen and propolis
mandibles
jaws of the insect; used by bees to form the honey comb, scrape pollen, fighting and picking up hive debris
Mating flight
flight taken by a virgin queen while she mates in the air with several drones
medium
box that is 6 5/8" in depth and the frames are 6 1/4" in depth. (aka Illinois or Western or 3/4 depth)
moisture content
in honey, the percentage of water should be no more than 18.6%; any higher than that will allow the honey to ferment
movable frame
frame constructed in such a way to preserve the bee space, so they can be easily removed; when in place it remains unattached to its surroundings.
Nasonov
A pheromone used given off by a gland under the tip of the abdomen of workers that serves primarily as an orientation pheromone. It is essential to swarming behavior and nasonoving is set off by disturbance of the colony. The scent is lemony.
Natural Comb
comb that bees have built on their own without foundation.
nectar
liquid rich in sugars produced by plants and secreted by nectary glands in or near flowers; the raw material for honey
Nectar Flow
a period of time when nectar is available
Nosema
Zygomycota; obligate intracellular parasites on insects, such as honeybees. Gives them diarrhea
Nuc
A small colony of bees often used in queen rearing or the box in which the small colony of bees resides. Meant to grown into a colony, but not full sized. (5 frames)
Nurse bees
the young house bees whose task it is to feed the brood. Usually 3-10 days old.
Open mesh Floor
a bottom board with screen (usually #8 hardware cloth) for the bottom to allow ventilation and to allow Varroa mites to fall though. In the US this is typically called screened bottom board.
Orientation Flight
Short flights taken in front and in the vicinity of the hive by young bees to acquaint them with hive location; sometimes mistaken for robbing or swarming preparations
Outer cover
the last cover that fits over a hive to protect it from rain; also called telescoping and migratory covers
Package bees
a quantity of adult bees (2-5 lbs) w/wo a queen contained in a screened shipping cage
Parasitic mites
Varroa mites/tracheal mites
Piping
a series of sounds made by a queen, frequently before she emerges form her cell. 'zoot zoot zoot' is the sound she makes emerging.
pollen
A fine dust that contains the sperm of seed-producing plants (gametophytes). Formed in the anthers and important as a protein source for bees; essential for bees to rear brood
Pollen Basket (corbicula)
an anatomical structure on the bees legs where pollen and propolis is carried
Pollen Pellets or Cake
pollen packed in the pollen baskets of the bees and transported back to the colony made by rolling the pollen, brushing is off and mixing it with nectar and packing it into the pollen baskets.
pollen substitute
food material which is used to substitute wholly for pollen in the bees diet; usually contains all or part of soy flour, brewers yeast, wheast, powdered sugar or other ingredients. Research has shown bees raised on substitute pollen do not live as long.
Pollen trap
a device for collecting the pollen pellets from the hind legs of the worker bees; usually forces the bees to squeeze through a screen mesh, usually #5 hardware cloth, which scrapes off the pellets
proboscis
The mouthparts of the bee that form the sucking tube or tongue
Propolis
plant resins collected mixed with enzymes from bee saliva and used to fill in small spaces inside the hive and to coat and sterilize everything in the hive. It has antimicrobial properties. "Bee Glue"
Pupa
The third stage of development of the bee during which it is inactive and sealed in its cocoon.
queen bee
the only reproductive female in the hive, and her only function is to reproduce for the whole colony
Queen cage
A special cage in which queens are shipped and/or introduces to a colony, usually with 4 to 7 young workers called attendants and usually a candy plug.
Queen Cup
A cup-shaped cell hanging vertically from the comb but containing no egg; also artificially of wax or plastic to raise queens.
Queen Excluder
a device made of wire, wood or zinc having openings of .163 ro .164 inch, which permits workers to pass but excludes queens and drones; used to confine the queen to a specific part of the hive, usually the brood nest
Queenright
colony with a laying queen that produced appropriate pheromones
Queen mandibular pheromone (QMP)
honey bee pheromone produced by the queen and fed to her attendants who share it with the rest of the colony that gives the colony the sense of being queenright.
Robbing
The act of bees stealing honey/nectar from the other colonies; also applied to bees cleaning out wet supers or cappings left uncovered by beekeepers and sometimes described as the beekeeper removing honey from the hive.
Rolling
term used to describe what happens when a frame is too tight or pulled out to quickly and bees get pushed against the comb next to it.
Royal Jelly
a high-protein, milky white substance secreted by nurse bees hypopharyngeal glands and fed to a queen bee and young larvae.
Screened bottom board
bottom board of a hive usually #8 hardware cloth, this screen allows ventilation and Varroa mites to fall through
scout bees
The worker bees that look for water, pollen, nectar, or a new nesting site.
shallow
a box that is 5 11/19 or 5 3/4" deep with frames that are 5 1/2 " deep
skep
a beehive w/o movable combs, usually made of twisted straw in the form of a basket; its use is illegal in the US and the combs are not able to be inspected
small hive beetle
recently imported pest whose larvae will destroy comb and ferment honey
Smoker
metal container with attached bellows which burn organic fuels to generate smoke; used to control aggressive behavior of the bees during colony inspections
Spermathacea
a sac connected with the oviduct (vagina) in which spermatozoa may be stored
Spiracles
The opening to the respiratory system that can be closed at will located on the abdomen.
Split
to divide a colony for the purpose of increasing the number of hives and prevent swarming
Sugar Syrup
feed for bees, containing sucrose or table sugar and hot water in various ratios. 1:1 in Spring and 2:1 in Fall.
Sugar Roll Test
a test for Varroa mites that involves rolling a cupful of bees in powdered sugar and counting the number of mites dislodged.
Supercedure
Rearing a new queen to replace the current queen.
swarm
A temporary collection of bees, containing at least one queen that split apart from the mother colony to establish a new colony; a natural method of propagation of honey bee colonies.
Swarm Cell
queen cells usually found on the bottom of the combs before swarming
Swarming
a natural method of propagation of honey bee colony
Swarming Season
The time of year, usually late spring or early summer when swarming is prone
Telescope Cover
a cover with a rim that hangs down all the way around, usually used with an inner cover under it.
Ten Frame
A box made to take ten frames 16 1/4" wide
Thorax
the central region of the frame or, in a top bar hive, just the piece of wood from which the comb hangs
Varroa destructor
varroa mite tha infests honey bees hives world wide. Came to the US from Asia
Virgin Queen
an unmated queen
Washboarding
when the bees on the landing board or the front of a hive are moving in unison resembling a line dance. It is unknown what the bees are trying to communicate
Wax Glands
four pairs of glands that are specialized parts of the body wall. During the wax forming period
in the life of a young worker, they become greatly thickened and take on a glandular structure. The wax is discharged as a liquid and hardens to small flakes or scales.
Wax Moths
a moth that will infest a hive if the hives become weak or without a queen. The multiplying of this moth can be extremely fast. It ingests the brood in the hive and bores into the wooden frame. Comb from a hive that is infested is not savable or able to be used
Winter Cluster
A tight bll of bees within the hive to generate heat; forms when outside temperature falls below 50 degrees F
Worker Bees
Infertile female bees whose reproductive organs are only partially developed, responsible for carrying out all the routine maintenance of the colony
Worker comb
Comb measuring between 4.4 mm and 5.4 mm, in which workers are reared and honey and pollen are stored
Worker Queen
aka laying worker; are worker bees which lay unfertilized eggs in a colony hopelessly queenless