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Chap. 10 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (37)
Neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). Afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying).
Autonomic Nervous System
Nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
Microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
Protective separation between the blood and brain cells. This makes it difficult for substances (such as anticancer drugs) to penetrate capillary walls and enter the brain.
Posterior portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
Collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
Part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord.
Posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance
Outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
Largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
Microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
Thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. Latin for "hard mother."
Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve. Efferent comes from ef- (meaning away from) and -ferent (meaning to carry).
gyrus (plural: gyri)
Sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution
Portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
Part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breathing, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here
Three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Uppermost portion of the brainstem.
Carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
Covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
Macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses
Nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body; parenchyma of the nervous system.
Chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
Involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
peripheral nervous system
Nerves outside the brain and spinal cord: cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
Thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
Part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain (Latin pons means bridge). It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
Organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
Nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. Sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
Carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
Autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
Space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells. From the Greek synapsis, a point of contact.
Main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum. Latin thalamus means room. The Romans, who named this structure, thought this part of the brain was hollow, like a little room
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