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NSC 170 Exam 3
Terms in this set (68)
over half of an adult's body is composed of what micronutrient?
fluid balance is maintained by what four electrolytes?
Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Phosphorous
what medication can aid in the loss of water for individuals who retain water?
if there are high electrolytes in side a cell, where will the water go?
water will move inside the cell to "balance" out the concentration
what will happen to the size of the cell?
the cell will swell because water is moving inside
main difference between vitamins and minerals?
vitamins are organic and minerals are inorganic
what makes vitamins/minerals different from macronutrients?
only macronutrients give calories (energy); vitamins and minerals do NOT
difference between fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins?
fat-soluble: dissolve in fat, stored in fat cells (easier to reach toxicity)
water-soluble: dissolve in water, does NOT get stored in the body
which vitamins are fat-soluble?
which vitamins can be made in the body? (nonessential)
the amino acid tryptophan can be converted to which vitamin?
bleeding gums and loose teeth are symptoms of what deficiency disease?
caused by deficiency of which vitamin? (scurvy)
yellow, orange, and green veggies contain this important vitamin PRECURSOR
beta-carotene gets converted into what?
what is the only fat-soluble vitamin that functions primarily as an antioxidant?
what diet sources have vitamin E?
plant and vegetable oils
what is the thiamin deficiency disease most often seen in third world countries?
what vitamin can cause birth defects if taken in large doses during pregnancy?
major function of vitamin A?
cell differentiation, vision, maintenance of epithelial tissue
what vitamin is important for pregnant women to consume (prevents neural tube defects)?
major function of folate?
cell proliferation (division)
what vitamin prevents Rickets in children?
activation of vitamin D requires two hydroxylation reactions. where does this occur?
1st reaction: liver
2nd reaction: kidney
vitamin D helps increase levels of these two minerals?
calcium and phosphorus
what vitamin plays an important role in blood clotting?
deficiency of Vitamin K causes what condition?
what vitamin can only be found in animal products?
if you get enough of this, you don't need to consume Vitamin D from foods...
sunlight or UV rays
what vitamin helps iron get absorbed?
what does it mean when a mineral is a "trace" mineral?
required in smaller quantities than "major" minerals but they are still just as important
minerals act as what molecule when they help with enzyme activity?
what mineral is a component of the amino acids methionine and cysteine?
what is the most abundant mineral in the body?
insufficient dietary calcium influences the development of what disease?
what mineral is associated with glucose transport via the insulin receptor?
what mineral is used as a buffer in our body fluids and is important for enzyme reactions and metabolic function?
what is the term describing how much the body can absorb and use a nutrient?
what mineral when consumed in excess, can increase risk of heart disease?
what mineral found in drinking water helps protect teeth and bones?
what may develop with Fluoride toxicity?
what mineral helps with the antioxidant activity of Vitamin E in cell membranes?
iron is a component of the two proteins...
hemoglobin and myoglobin
what transports iron throughout the body?
two types of iron in food...
heme and non-heme
__________ iron is more readily absorbed, and is found d in animal products.
what mineral is important for growth and development?
what can inhibit calcium absorption?
phytates and oxalates
what component in plants can help reduce caner and disease?
main nutrients to increase in the DASH diet?
potassium, calcium, magnesium,
which of these is most helpful for lowering blood pressure? (DASH diet)
what mineral was fortified into table salt to prevent the deficiency disease goiter?
Supplementing high amounts of water soluble vitamins is as dangerous as high amounts of fat soluble vitamins...
Vitamin A influences the eye and vision by maintaining the following EXCEPT...
Vitamin D's main function is to...
to raise blood calcium levels
all of the following are antioxidants EXCEPT...
which nutrient is involved with cell proliferation?
for women trying to conceive, __________ is harmful at high doses and _________ can be a problem at low doses.
vitamin A, folate
mineral absorption can be hindered by...
phytates, oxalates, tannins
which mineral is found as part of protein and plays a role in protein structure such as connective tissue, hair, and nails?
all the following nutrients are involved in red blood cell synthesis EXCEPT
which vitamins are involved in cell differentiation?
vitamins A and D
when the B vitamins form part of an enzyme complex to help catalyze energy metabolism, they are called...
all of the following vitamins can be produced in the body to a certain extent EXCET...
which nutrient is involved in cell PROliferation
extracellular fluid makes up the majority of your body fluids...
when minerals are part of an enzyme complex, they are called...
selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin e, and vitamin c are...
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