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Chapter 14 World History

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How did silver from the mines of Mexico and Peru affect international commerce
enabled europeans to buy Chinese tea, silk, and porcelain
What did the Portuguese do after they established sea routes to the Indian Ocean?
they conquered several strategic port cities
How did the Tokugawa shoguns treat Europeans in Japan in the early seventeenth century?
they expelled all europeans except the dutch
the first direct and sustained link between the americas and Asia was the trade in?
silver
Which was a result of the fur trade in North America in the early modern period?
the dependance of Native Americans on European trade goods
the Chinese requirement of payment of taxes in silver in the 1570s affected the global economy
the value of silver around the world skyrocketed
Which of the following is true of slavery in the premodern islamic world
some slaves acquired prominent military or political status
The number of slaves shipped from Africa to the Americas peaked
In the 1700s
the most common destinations in the americas for west African slaves were...
Brazil and the Caribbean
Which distinguished the Atlantic slave trade in the americas from past examples of slavery
slave status was associated with race
the emergence of Japan as a source of somber production in the 16th century contributed to
the end of civil war and the unification of Japan
which of the following was an incentive for the Portuguese to find a direct sea route to Asia?
Circumvent muslim on venetian monopoly on Indian Ocean trade
which of the following was established as a Spanish colony in the 16th century?
the Philippine islands
which characterizes how european countries sought to control trade in Asia from 1450-1750?
By force of arms
which describes the role europeans played in the economy of the early modern era?
essentially middlemen funneling American silver to Asia
which development in the early modern period incentivized for Europe to go into the fur trade?
the little ice age
what commodity as considered "soft gold" in early modern commerce?
furs
which of the following was a consequence of the Atlantic slave trade?
the African diaspora
The origins of the Atlantic slave trade were associated with the
production of sugar
what was one affect of the slave trade on African societies
corrupted judicial proceedings were widespread
some women in African societies held what advantage
had access to political power
how did the Japanese government create their own merchants in southeast Asia during the 1600s?
they disowned any responsibility placed upon them
how did the fur trade impact indigenous societies in the Americas?
it led to tribal warfare
what single factor led to europeans' presence in Asia?
trade
which was true of the west African slave trade?
europeans used the coast to acquire slaves
what was a major difference among the Spanish and Portuguese in Asia?
The Spanish converted the natives to christianity
in what way were African states effected by the slave trade?
some states profited from the revenue generated
what was a major difference between the British and dutch east India companies?
the British used negotiations and the Dutch used conquest
what was the name given to the spread of African people across the Atlantic?
African diaspora
How is the kingdom of Dahomey best described?
A kingdom whose rulers benefited from the slave trade
African Diaspora
Name given to the spread of African peoples across the Atlantic via the slave trade.
Benin
West African kingdom (in what is now Nigeria) whose strong kings sharply limited engagement with the slave trade.
British/Dutch East India Companies
Private trading companies chartered by the governments of England and the Netherlands around 1600; they were given monopolies on Indian Ocean trade, including the right to make war and to rule conquered peoples.
Dahomey
West African kingdom that became strong through its rulers' exploitation of the slave trade.
Indian Ocean Commercial Network
The massive, interconnected web of commerce in
premodern times between the lands that bordered on the Indian Ocean (including East Asia, India, and Southeast Asia); the network was badly disrupted by Portuguese intrusion beginning around 1500.
Potosi
City that developed high in the Andes (in present-day Bolivia) at the site of the world's largest silver mind and that became the largest city in the Americas, with a population of some 160,000 in the 1570s.
"silver drain"
Term often used, along with "specie drain", to describe the siphoning of money from Europe to pay for the luxury products of the East, a process exacerbated by the fact that Europe had few trade goods that were desirable in Eastern markets;
eventually, the bulk of the world's silver supply made its way to China
"soft gold"
Nickname used in the early modern period for animal furs, highly valued for their warmth and as symbols of elite status; in several regions, the fur trade generated massive wealth for those engaged in it.
Spanish Phillipines
An archipelago of pacific islands colonized by Spain in a relatively bloodless process that extended for the century or so after 1565, a process accompanied by a major effort at evangelization; the Spanish named them the Philippine Islands in honor of King Philip II of Spain.
Tokugawa Shogunate
Military rulers of Japan who successfully unified Japan
politically by the early seventeenth century and established a "closed door" policy toward European encroachments
trading post empire
Form of imperial dominance based on control of trade on control of subject peoples
What was the one major advantage that allowed the small Portuguese fleet to dominate the Indian Ocean militarily?
destroy coastal fortifications.
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the Portuguese trading post empire's steep decline in the Indian Ocean by 1600?
The Spanish ousted the Portuguese from Asian waters.
What strategic significance did the Philippine Islands hold for Spain?
They were close to China but not ruled by China.
What was one main difference between the Spanish colonization of the Philippines and the Portuguese strongholds in the Indian Ocean basin?
The Spanish converted Filipinos to Christianity; the Portuguese often blended into the local populations.
What was a primary difference between the establishment of the British East India Company in Mughal India versus the establishment of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia?
The British made payments to Mughal authorities; the Dutch violently conquered and killed many Indonesians.
What was the attitude of Japanese shoguns toward Christian Europeans in Japan in the early seventeenth century?
They violently expelled all but a few Europeans
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of the new European trading networks in the Indian Ocean to other Asian commercial networks?
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship of the new European trading networks in the Indian Ocean to other Asian commercial networks?
Europeans became just one small group within a vast number of thriving Asian commercial networks.
Which of the following was NOT a factor in the emergence of silver as the currency of global trade in the sixteenth century?
The lack of any silver mines in Asia
What impact did the discovery of the world's largest silver mine at Potosí have on the native (mostly) Incan population there
They were forced to work in deadly, hellish conditions.
How did the discovery of the vast silver mines in South America affect Spain's position in Europe?
It allowed Spanish rulers to pursue political and military goals far beyond what they could afford previously.
How did the discovery of silver mines in Japan impact Japanese fortunes?
The ruling shogunate wisely used profits from the mines to create a sustainable market-based economy and ecology.
In what way did the Chinese response to the global silver economy differ from the Japanese response?
Economic changes resulted in ecological devastation in China but not in Japan.
All of the following powers got the vast majority of their furs from North America EXCEPT
Russia
What was the main way through which Europeans acquired furs in North America?
Trade with Native Americans
In what way did the fur trade benefit Native Americans?
It protected them against enslavement and genocide, initially.
In what way did the fur trade harm Native Americans?
Because of contact with Europeans, it eventually led to warfare, disease, and alcoholism
How did African slavery in the New World differ fundamentally from past instances of slavery in world history?
Slavery in the Americas was clearly associated with race and with plantation economies.
What was the social status of those Africans who were captured by other Africans to be sold to Europeans?
They were outcasts and foreigners, often prisoners of war, within local villages.
What best describes the long-term impact of the slave trade on West Africa?
Economic stagnation and political disruption
The immediate motivation for the Portuguese policy of expansion around Africa and into Asia was the desire for ___________.
spices
______________ was the major gateway for precious goods from Asia into Europe until the Portuguese exploration
Muslim Egypt
The Portuguese empire in the Indian Ocean was not a territorial empire but rather a ______________ empire.
trading post
Spain's first foothold in the Asian commercial network was ____________.
the Philippines
In 1603, the Spanish killed nearly the entire __________ population of the Philippines.
Chinese
Unlike the Portuguese, the British and the Dutch used _______________ to expand their power in the Indian Ocean basin.
private trading companies
The Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company gained control over ________________, respectively.
Indonesia and India
When European traders and missionaries first arrived in Japan, Japanese society and government were _______________.
fragmented
The currency of global exchange between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries was ___________.
silver
The Spanish colony of ___________ was the crucial link in the creation of a new Asian-American trading network.
the Philippines
Most of the silver in the world ended up in _________, where it stayed "as if at its natural center."
China
Unusually cold temperatures and growing populations drove up demand for __________ in the sixteenth century.
animal furs
The "mourning wars" were attempts by Native American tribes to capture new ___________, to restore what they had lost to European diseases.
people
The spread of African peoples throughout the Americas as a result of the slave trade was called the _____________.
African diaspora
The crop most responsible for the initiation of African slavery in the New World was ________
sugar
The kingdom of ___________ was severely destabilized as a result of the slave trade.
Kongo
Ninety percent of enslaved Africans ended up in _____________.
Brazil and the Caribbean
The kingdom of ___________was an example of a West African state that mostly resisted involvement in the African slave trade.
Benin
after 1603, the Tokugawa Shogunate disallowed
any japanese from traveling outside islands