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Chapter 3 Brain and Biology
Terms in this set (49)
Recording of the electrical activity of the brain
destroying a piece of the brain
electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB)
sending a weak electric current into a brain structure to stimulate it
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
The use of strong magnets to briefly interrupt normal brain activity as a way to study brain regions
CT (computerized tomography)
computer enhanced X-ray of brain structure
PET scan (positron emission tomography)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to map out brain structure
fMRI (functional MRI)
monitors blood flow and oxygen consumption in the brain to identify areas of high activity
Area containing the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
A small structure between the hindbrain and forebrain
A part of the brain that covers the brain's central core.
central relay station for all sense except smell
A structure near the base of the forebrain that regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior.
A group of neural structures at the base of the cerebral hemispheres that is associated with emotion and motivation
Outer layer of the cerebrum
Largest part of brain, associated with higher order functioning including control of voluntary behaviour, e.g. Thinking, planning, perceiving, understanding language.
Connects the left & right hemispheres.
front of head, registers movement of muscles on the motor cortex
back of the head, contains the primary visual cortex
top of head, registers sense of touch on somatosensory cortext
near the temples, devoted to auditory processing in the auditory cortex
Part of the brain that controls higher order functions and thoughts
Frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
The brain's ability to repair, replace, and retrain its neural circuitry.
Formation of new neurons
split brain surgery
procedure that involves severing the corpus callosum to reduce the spread of epileptic seizures
1913-1994 American psychologist who received the Nobel prize in 1981 for his pioneering research on brain specialization in split-brain patients.
glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream that help control bodily functioning
Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues
hormone released by pituitary gland which regulates reproductive behaviors
An interdisciplinary field that studies the influence of genetic factors on behavioral traits.
strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
A one-celled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an egg.
DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission.
the two genes in a specific pair are the same
The situation that occurs when two genes in a specific pair are different.
A gene that is expressed in the offspring whenever it is present
Gene that is hidden when the dominant gene is present
An organism's genetic makeup
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
Characteristics that are influenced by more than one pair of genes
Assess hereditary influence by examining the resemblance between adopted children and both their biological and their adoptive parents.
Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
1809-1882 English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
inherited characteristics that increase in a population through natural selection because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged
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