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AP Gov Flashcards
Terms in this set (76)
cooperative Federalism, revenue sharing, or fiscal federalism
congress collecting federal tax revenues and distributes these funds to the states to take care of particular national concerns
The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nations.
the 13 sovereign states had entered into a compact, or contract, regarding its jurisdiction
Powers held jointly by the national and state governments.
Powers specifically given to the federal government by the US Constitution, for example, the authority to print money.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Clean Air Act of 1970
Required EPA to develop and enforce regulations to protect the public from airborne contaminants; forced states to follow and make sure the laws for followed in relation to the EPA. States allowed to decide officials for enforcement.
conditions of aids/strings
categorical grants with strings
a large grant given to a state by the federal government with only general spending guidelines
Federal grants for specific purposes, such as building an airport
A centralized government in which all government powers belong to a single, central agency.
A system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Constitution's requirement that each state accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Privleges and Immunities Clause
(Article 4: citizens of one state cannot be discriminated in other states
A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
state power to effect laws promoting health, safety, and morals
Powers not specifically granted to the federal government or denied to the states belong to the states and the people
distinguishing the two governing spheres (state and national)
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
A state's refusal to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Powers inferred from the express powers that allow Congress to carry out its functions.
Legal doctrine that states that when the commerce at issue requires national, uniform regulation, only Congress may regulate it
A system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies.
programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government
specific requirements attached to grants
Marble Cake Federalism
Conceives of federalism as a marble cake in which all levels of government are involved in a variety of issues and programs, rather than a layer cake, or dual federalism, with fixed divisions between layers or levels of government.
system in which the national government restores greater authority back to the states
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants
the transfer of powers and responsibilities from the federal government to the states
United States v. Lopez (1995)
Commerce clause of Constitution does not give Congress the power to regulate guns near state-operated schools
No Child Left Behind Act
A U.S. law enacted in 2001 that was intended to increase accountability in education by requiring states to qualify for federal educational funding by administering standardized tests to measure school achievement.
Reappointment Act of 1929
Set permanent size to 435, seats would be redistributed after every census (10 years)
The powers explicitly given to Congress in the Constitution.
War Powers Act of 1973
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
advice and consent
The power of the Senate to consult and approve the presidents treaties and appointments.
Members of the House and Senate picked by their parties to carry out party decisions and steer legislative action to meet party goals
a senator or representative who helps the party leader stay informed about what party members are thinking (the deputy floor leader)
Senate Majority Leader
A permanent committee established in a legislature, usually focusing on a policy area
House Judiciary Committee
Considers legislation dealing with civil liberties, constitutional amendments, federal courts and judges, immigration, civil and criminal laws
A committee composed of members of both the House of Representatives and the Senate; such committees oversee the Library of Congress and conduct investigations.
A temporary legislative committee established for a limited time period and for a special purpose.
a joint committee that meets to help house and senate members agree on the details of a proposed law
A meeting held by a congressional committee or subcommittee to approve, amend, or redraft a bill.
a committee's investigation of the executive and of government agencies to ensure they are acting as Congress intends
meetings of party leaders to determine party policy or to choose the party's candidates for public office
House Ways and Means Committee
determines tax policy
House Rules Committee
An institution unique to the House of Representatives that reviews all bills (except revenue, budget, and appropriations bills) coming from a House committee before they go to the full House.
Petition that, if signed by majority of the House of Representatives' members, will pry a bill from committee and bring it to the floor for consideration.
A procedural practice in the Senate whereby a senator refuses to relinquish the floor and thereby delays proceedings and prevents a vote on a controversial issue.
an agreement by every senator to the terms of debate on a given piece of legislation
a rule used by the Senate to end or limit debate
the member who introduces the bill
means directly related with the topic of the bill, amendments to bills in the house must be germane
formal changes to a bill that do not have any direct relation to the subject of the bill itself. The Senate permits such amendments.
One very large bill that encompasses many separate bills.
pork barrel spending
when funds are directed to a very specific purpose
spending in pork barrel spending
a congressional process whereby a bill may be referred to several committees to review it at the same time
gives one committee priority to review it before others
An agreement by two or more lawmakers to support each other's bills
The view that an elected represent should represent the opinions of his or her constituents.
a model of representation in which a member of the House or Senate follows his or her own conscience when deciding issue positions
Members of Congress act as delegates or trustees depending on the issue
5 sources of federal government revenue
individual income tax, corporate taxes, social insurance taxes, tariffs, and excise taxes, other sources
3 categories of federal government spending
government spending, mandatory spending, discretionary spending
Required govt spending by permanent laws
the difference in spending and revenue
pays for everything not covered in government spending and mandatory spending
the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
The redrawing of congressional and other legislative district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population.
Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
districts in which a party consistently tends to win by more than 55 percent of the vote
A seat in a congressional district that has relatively similar numbers of Democratic and Republican voters.
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