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Protists: Algae #2 Botany Test 2
Terms in this set (42)
In Green Algae, what is the role of phycoplast?
The role of phycoplast is to ensure that the cleavage furrow, resulting from infoldings of the plasma membrane, will pass between the two daughter nuclei.
Brown Algae is used for commerical use
A synapomorphies are character states that arose in the common ancestor of the group and are present in all of its members.
What are the functions of the pellicile, stigma, and contractile vacuole?
Pellicile is a protective layer of cells. The stigma is a pollen receptor. The contractile vacuole helps remove waste and excess water from single celled organisms.
Red algae have cell walls with agar or carrageenan.`
Give examples of how diverse habitats of green algae can range.
They can be aquatic or found on the surface of snow, on tree trunks, in soil,and in desert microbiotic crusts.
What are some examples of how brown algae can be used?
Emulsifiers, paints, cosmetics, and explosives
Examples of heterotrophic protists?
all examples are unicellular
In which green algae does the sporophyte organism and gametophyte organism look the same?
What is Brown Algae's Thallus consist of?
Holdfast "Root", Stipe "Stem", Blade "Leaf"
What are the characteristic pigments and storage compounds of Red Algae
Pigments: chlorophyll a, phycobilins, carotenoids
What organelles do all protists have?
Nucleus, Mitochondria, Golgi Apparatus and endoplasmic reticulate.
Which algae contains agar or carrageenan in its cell walls? What is carrageenan commonly used for?
Red algae. Carrageenan is a polysaccharide that is often added in foods like ice cream, pudding, and toothpaste as a thickening or stabilizing agent
Chlorophytes are mostly marine.
Most green algae are aquatic, but they can found in a variety of habitats can green algae be found on the surface of snow?
give some examples of how brown algae can be used
they are good emulsifiers and are high in nitrogen so they are food fertilizers and can be used to make paints, cosmetics and end even explosives.
What are the three parts of the "thallus" in brown algae?
holdfast, stipe, blade
Compare red algae and brown algae.
Red algae has reddish pigment known as phycoerythrin pigment whereas brown algae has brown pigment known as fucoxanthin pigment. Red algae can live in the deepest water whereas brown algae grow on rocky shores with holdfast which is a root like structure present at the base of the algae.
List 3 ways brown Algae is used commercially in the U.S. How is it used in these products?
Like a typical angiosperm, brown algae have leaves and stems.
The only flagellated cells found in Red algae are male gametic cells.
The flagellated cells of Red Algae enable them to move around.
Algae is used all the time in our everyday lives. List three commercial uses for algae.
algin as an emulsifier, fertilizer, in foods
Red algae comes in benthic and planktonic forms
Are Chlorophyceae mostly fresh water or salt water.
Green algae is used commercially in food, cosmetics and paper
Algae is the base of the bulk of the ecosystem of the planet.
The chloroplasts of red algae contain phycobilins which mask the color of chlorophyll a and give the red algae their distinctive color.
There are three major groups of green algae: Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Charophyceae. What is unique about the life cycle of Ulva or "sea lettuce", a green algae in the Ulvophyceae family.
The Ulvophyceae typically go through zygotic meiosis like the other families of green algae, however they can alternate between generations to undergo sporic and gametic meiosis. Something unique to the Ulva is that their gametophyte and sporophyte are morphologically identical. The diploid sporophyte produces haploid spores through meiosis and then those spores develop into haploid gametophytes, positive and negative, and the life cycle continues.
Explain why brown algae does not have a vascular structure.
Brown algae is found underwater; the point of a vascular system is to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant and to give it structure. Since brown algae is already surrounded by water it doesn't need any help with transporting nutrients or being held up.
Red algae are unique among the algal phyla in the way that their _______ have been replaced by microtubule organizing centers known as polar rings.
Explain the difference between isogamy, anisogamy, and oogamy.
Isogamy is a type of sexual reproduction in algae and fungi where the gametes or gametangia are alike in size. Anisogamy is the condition of having dissimilar motile gametes. Oogamy is sexual reproduction in which one of the gametes (egg) is large and nonmotile and the other gamete (sperm) is smaller and motile.
Briefly describe the sexual reproduction of Chlamydomonas.
Sexual reproduction occurs when gametes of different mating types come together and form a zygote (2n). When a thick wall is formed around the zygote it becomes a zygospore. Meiosis and then germination occur resulting in four haploid cells. The haploid cells are either + strain or -strain. These haploid cells undergo mitosis and zoospores or gametes are produced (n). The + strain produces +gametes and the -strain produces -gametes. For sexual reproduction to start a +gamete and a -gamete must fuse together.
In what conditions has green algae been shown to grow in?
What is a Thallus?
A type of plant body that is not differentiated into a root, stem, or leaf.
What is one of the uses for algae?
Food, fertilizer, algin (emulsifier): food, paint, cosmetics.
In detail, explain one algae life cycle of your choice.
Life cycle of Ulva, The sea lettuce:
Fertilization occurs and forms a diploid zygote. That zygote develops into a sporophyte which then goes through meiosis to produce haploid spores. Those spores develop into haploid gametophytes. It should be noted that the sporophyte and gametophyte are indistinguishable execpt for their reproductive structures. The gametophyte produces haploid gametes and they then fuse to form the diploid zygote. The cycle then starts again.
Describe sexual lifecycle of Chlamydomonas
A zygote then develops into a zoospore which undergoes meiosis and then germination to create four haploid cells which can then undergo mitosis to create more haploid gametes these are then released and can fuse with the opposite strain of gamete produced they first fuse their protoplasts through plasmogamy and later fuse their nuclei by karyogamy to form a new diploid zygote to restart the cycle
Why cant terms like root, stem, and leaf be used to categorize algae?
The respective parts cant be transferred to describe the functions of algae. The stipe doesnt act the same as a stem would despite resemblance.
What is the difference betweem Chlorococcum and hydrodiction?
Chlorococcum is non-motile unicell, Hydrodiction is non-motile and colonial.
What pigment gives brown algae its characteristic color?
What is secreted in Red Algae to give them a coral like appearance?
The secretion of calcium carbonate in the cell walls creates a reef formation that mimics that of coral
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