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American History 2 Endterm
Terms in this set (100)
Elected President in 1928 after years of economic success in the U.S. Predicted the end of poverty. Was President when the Depression began. Believed in Rugged Individualism and refused direct relief to the poor.
October 29, 1929. Signaled the Financial collapse of the nation. Seen as a beginning point of the Great Depression.
Belief of Herbert Hoover's that the government should not give direct aid to the poor because it would destroy the person pride and their belief in hard work.
Protestors who came to Washington to ask Congress to pay a WW I payment to veterans earlier than promised because of the Depression. Congress refused and the protestors were dispersed by the U.S. military.
Policy of FDR where he pledged to help the poor of the American public in the Depression and he would provide direct aid to those who needed it.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
American President during the Depression and WW II who started the New Deal programs and promised to help relieve the suffering of the poor during the Depression. Elected to Four terms as President.
First 100 Days
The name given to the first part of FDR's administration where they worked with Congress to pass and create many new programs to try and deal with the Depression.
This was the way in which Franklin Roosevelt communicated with the American public throughout the Depression and WW II. They often times served to ease the fears of the public during these trying times.
New Deal Program that was designed to foster confidence in the banking system because the government will guarantee your savings are safe.
New Deal program where young men were sent to do work outside planting trees, fighting forest fires, and working in national parks.
New Deal program designed to provide jobs and electricity through one of the nation's poorest areas. Program still exists today.
New Deal program designed to get businesses and consumers to support the policies of the government. Prices were set and wages were arranged. Working hours were regulated and strikes postponed. Cooperating businesses displayed the program's symbol of a blue eagle.
This is the name given to the lower mid-west during a period of great drought in the 1930's. Many farmers had to abandon the area and become migrant workers in other parts of the nation.
New Deal critic who proposed a pension system for the elderly. This helped to bring about the Social Security Act of 1935.
New Deal critic who was a Senator from Louisiana and promoted a program in which he said "every man is a king" and people should be guaranteed an annual income, a home, and a college education.
New Deal program where the gov't gave jobs for public works but also to artists, musicians, photographers, and writers to complete project for the public's benefit.
New Deal program that created a safety net for the elderly and the young to provide them with an income to meet basic needs. This is the single largest program operated by our government of today.
Controversy involving Franklin Roosevelt's suggestion that the Supreme Court needed additional members because of its rulings against several New Deal programs.
Type of government that developed in the 1930's in Italy and Germany. A type of totalitarian government led by a dictator type figure.
Munich Peace Conference
Meeting where British and French leaders practiced the policy of appeasement with Hitler and divided Czechoslovakia in order to avoid war and keep "peace in our time." Policy failed as war was inevitable.
December 7th, 1941. Surprise attack by the Japanese on the United States. Brought the U.S. into WW II.
Agreement between the U.S. and Britain signed after the beginning of WW II. Churchill and Roosevelt met to sign this agreement which states our common goals for winning the war.
Rosie the Riveter
Fictional character that represented the importance that women have played in our effort to fight WW II as they replaced men in all forms of factory work.
This is when the population of Japanese American in the Western U.S. were forced into detention camps because of the attacks on Pearl Harbor. Decision was challenged in Court, but the Court supported the efforts of the government.
Name for the famed invasion of Normandy France on June 6, 1944 as Allied troops stormed the beaches to begin the attack on Hitler from the western front.
Battle of the Bulge
Last major offensive battle by Hitler in WW II. U.S. troops played a major part in this defensive effort. After this point, Germany was forced into retreat.
Turning point battle of the war against Japan. Naval battle fought only with naval aircraft.
Strategy of the U.S. to defeat Japan in the many island of the Pacific. Led to major conflicts in places like the Solomons, Philippines, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa.
Lead Commander of the U.S. in the Pacific in WW II. Served as occupational governor of Japan after the War. Led U.S. troop in the Korean War until his dismissal by Truman for criticizing the President.
Secret government project that led to the construction of the atomic bomb.
Place where the first atomic bomb was dropped in August, 1945
Name of the world organization formed at the end of WW II that is located in New York.
Became President upon the death of FDR. Ended WW II with the dropping of the Atomic bomb. Lead the nation in the Korean War. Helped establish the policy of communist containment. Desegregated the U.S. military
Name given by Winston Churchill to the areas of Europe that were now under the control of the USSR.
Name of the proposal to rebuild the areas of Europe destroyed by WW II. U.S. loaned over 14 billion in supplies and materials to help these nations. Was a method to fight the possible spread of communism.
Presidential policy of trying to aid any nation that needs aid to prevent the spread of communist governments.
The idea of stopping the spread of communism. Theory was set forth by George Kennan who was the U.S. ambassador to the USSR. The Truman Doctrine was the official U.S. policy that reflected this theory.
Cold War confrontation where the U.S. had to fly supplies into a Germany city in order to prevent its takeover by communist forces under the USSR.
Name of the security organization formed by the U.S. and western European nations in the Cold War.
War fought to stop the invasion of communists across the 38th parallel. Fought from 1950-1953. War begun under Truman and ended under Eisenhower.
This line represented the division of North and South Korea. This is the area where the Korean War began and ended as neither side gained any measurable land area.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
He was the leader of American forces in Europe during WW II. Elected President in 1952. Sent troops to desegregate Little Rock Central. Warned the nation of the dangers of the military-industrial complex.
U-2 Spy Plane
Name of the U.S, spy plane that was shot down over the USSR during the Eisenhower Administration.
U.S. Senator who began to accuse various people in the government and entertainment profession of being communist. The accusations were usually without proof and served to assassinate the character of the accused.
The word describes the growth of the areas surrounding urban areas as many American sought a quieter lifestyle.
John F. Kennedy
Winner of the 1960 Presidential election. Challenged Americans to "ask what they can do for their country." Established the Peace Corp. Avoided war during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Was assassinated in Dallas, 1963.
Bay of Pigs
Failed invasion of Cuba by Cuban nationalist exiles trying to oust Fidel Castro. The exiles had U.S. help and were completely defeated. Great embarrassment to the Kennedy Administration.
This symbol of communism was constructed in 1961 to prevent travel and communication between the east and west parts of Berlin.
Cuban Missile Crisis
National crisis of 1962 when the U.S. discovered nuclear missiles being placed in Cuba by the USSR. Led to a near war with the USSR
Name given to the JFK administration policies that challenged the nation to move into the future. Containment, Civil Rights and Space exploration were some of the goals of the program.
Group begun by JFK that was composed of volunteers who went to under developed nations and tried to help the people there improve their lives.
Lee Harvey Oswald
Accused lone assassin of JFK. Was killed two days after JFK by Jack Ruby. Is often the topic of several conspiracy theories surrounding the assassination.
Name of the official government investigation into the death of JFK.
Became President upon the death of JFK. Created a domestic program called the Great Society to fight poverty. Began U.S. involvement in Vietnam.
Name of Lyndon B. Johnson's program to help the U.S. to fight evils of our society, namely poverty, discrimination, unemployment, and poor education.
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court case where the Court ruled that segregation is no longer acceptable. Decision was made in a school desegregation case in 1954.
Montgomery lady who signals the beginning of the civil rights movement when she refuses to give up a seat on a segregated bus.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leader of the non-violent disobedience civil rights movement that begun in Montgomery Alabama and spread across the nation.
City where President Eisenhower had to send troops in order to desegregate a local all white high school in 1957.
Began in Greensboro, NC to protest the segregation policies of many public restaurants. Started by 4 NC A&T college students.
Group of civil disobedience protestors who rode into segregated bus stations to prove the point of civil rights abuses. Some were injured in a bomb that was placed on one of the buses.
City in 1963 that met civil rights protestors with police dogs and firehoses. Brought national attention to the movement and forced the Federal government to respond.
March on Washington
Large protest in August 1963 outside the Lincoln Memorial to protest the conditions of civil rights. Martin Luther King Jr. gave his "I Have a Dream Speech" in this protest.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights law passed after JFK's death that banned segregation in all public places.
Governor of Alabama who stood in the doorway of the University of Alabama to protest its order to integrate. He later ran for President on a platform of continued segregation.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
National Law passed to guarantee voting privileges to African Americans across the nation.
African American man who was the first to go to a formerly segregated University of Mississippi.
Nation of Islam
African American group that advocated black nationalism and separation from white society. They were also a religious group who required members to convert to the Muslim religion.
Spokesperson for the controversial Nation of Islam. Advocated black nationalism and separation from white society. Accepted the use of violence in order to defend oneself against civil rights abuses.
Idea promoted by Stokley Carmichael to describe the idea that African Americans should control their social, economic, and political lives and separate from white society if needed.
Robert F. Kennedy
He was the Attorney General under John F. Kennedy and later became the leading candidate for the President in 1968 before he was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan.
James Earl Ray
The convicted assassin of Martin Luther King Jr.
Name of the South Vietnamese communist fighters who were our opponents in the Vietnam War.
Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution that asked the U.S. Congress for permission to retaliate against North Vietnam for attacks against U.S. vessels in the waters near Vietnam. LBJ issued the Resolution and soon thereafter escalated the war in Vietnam.
Practice of giving college bound students an exemption from the draft sending men to fight in Vietnam. This became one of the major issue protested in the war.
This was the turning point of the Vietnam Conflict as the Communist forces mounted a massive offensive and although they were defeated it served to discourage the American military and public. Jan. 1968
College campus where Vietnam War protests were met with the gunfire of National Guard troops and several students were killed.
Secret documents leaked to the NY Times that told of the activites of several Presidents to escalate the war in Vietnam without the Congress' or public's knowledge.
War Powers Act
Law passed after the Vietnam War which limits the President's ability to send troops into battle without the approval of Congress.
Organization that was formed to advocate the rights of women as a group. Helped to led the women's movement of the 60's and 70's.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed Constitutional Amendment that would have guaranteed equal rights regardless of sex. Proposed Amendment has never been ratified.
Leader of the migrant farm workers union that formed in the 60's and 70's to improve the wages and conditions these workers were receiving.
Name given to members of the counter culture movement of the 1960's and 1970's. They often objected to societal norms and experimented with communal living and hallucinogenic drugs.
Elected President in 1968. Had been Vice President under Eisenhower from 1952-1960 and was defeated in 1960 by JFK. Policy of détente helped to ease the Cold War tensions. Policy of Vietnamization led to U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam. Resigned as President after the Watergate scandal.
Policy of Nixon to return control of many government programs to state and local government rather than national government control.
Nixon's policy of relaxing tensions between the superpowers. Led to several arms reduction treaties with the USSR and a state visit to communist China in 1972.
Name of the crisis that forced President Nixon to resign as President of the U.S.
became the unelected President of the United States when Richard Nixon resigned from office.
Elected President in 1976 as a non-Washington outsider. Led peace talks with Egypt and Israel. Followed a human rights foreign policy.
Iran Hostage Crisis
Crisis under Jimmy Carter that involved the taking of hostages from a U.S. embassy in a foreign nation.
Camp David Accords
Peace Treaty signed between Egypt and Israel at the Presidential retreat in Maryland under the leadership of Jimmy Carter.
President who led a conservative revolution in the 1980's. Reduced taxes and increased military spending. Ran high deficits. Iran-Contra Scandal in his second term as President.
War fought in 1991 against Iraq to force them to withdraw from the nation of Kuwait. George HW Bush was the President
Elected President in 1992. Signed the NAFTA agreement to create a free trade network. Worked with Congress to balance the budget and create a budget surplus. Second President to be impeached, but was found not guilty.
Agreement that brought Mexico and Canada into the free-trade zone with the United States.
Contract with America
Agreement made with American voters by the 1990's Republican Congress to reduce government spending and to produce a balanced budget.
George W. Bush
Elected President in 2000 with the Electoral College vote, but not the popular vote.
September 11, 2001
Attack on the US World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Attack carried out by Al Qaeda.
This controversial law was passed after the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001. Allowed the government to monitor phone calls, library book rentals and book store purchases. Angered many Americans and groups, like the ACLU, due to the infringement on Americans' civil liberties.
Elected President in 2008 as a Democrat. Became the first minority elected as President.
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